Difference between revisions of "Old Dwarven language"

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|speakers      = ''none'' (extinct)
 
|speakers      = ''none'' (extinct)
 
|familycolor  = dwarven
 
|familycolor  = dwarven
|extinct = split between [[Temple Dwarven language|Temple Dwarven]], [[Classical Dwarven language|Classical Koiné]] and [[Dwarven dialects|various dialects]] around 1000 BEKE
+
|extinct = split between [[Temple Dwarven language|Temple Dwarven]], [[Classical Dwarven language|Classical Koiné]] and [[Dwarven dialects|various dialects]] around 1000 BEKE.<br>Influenced [[Old and Middle Etrandish dialects#Northern Etrandish|Old Northern Etrandish]]
 
|script = [[Old Dwarven script]]
 
|script = [[Old Dwarven script]]
 
|ethnicity = [[Dwarves]] and [[Gnomes]]
 
|ethnicity = [[Dwarves]] and [[Gnomes]]

Latest revision as of 17:38, 14 January 2020

Language: English
Old Dwarven
RegionNorthern Etrand
EthnicityDwarves and Gnomes
Extinctsplit between Temple Dwarven, Classical Koiné and various dialects around 1000 BEKE.
Influenced Old Northern Etrandish
Norlokian
  • Old Dwarven
Early form
Old Dwarven script
Language codes
ISO 639-3

The Old Dwarven language was the earliest attested variant of the Dwarven language, and it is the second most attested ancient language of Artograch that was spoken before the Proto-Elven invasion of Artograch. It is still used as for religious purpose in the Dwarven religion, although with modernized pronunciation - this form is known as Temple Dwarven.

Evolution from Proto-Norlokian

Old Dwarven - or rather, its written form - was rather conservative seems to have not diverged much from its ancestor, though some differences still existed:

  • The affricates /t͡sʲ t͡sˠ d͡zʲ d͡zˠ/ deaffricated [sʲ sˠ zʲ zˠ], which crowded out the original sibilant fricatives /sʲ sˠ zʲ zˠ/ to the postalveolar region [ʃʲ ʃˠ ʒʲ ʒˠ].
  • While the precise articulation of the seven monophthongs and four diphthongs in Proto-Norlokian was not known, and it was unknown whether they were coloured by neighbouring slender and broad consonants. In contrast, in Old Dwarven, it was well-documented that the palatalization of slender consonants and velarization of broad consonants mainly manifested itself in the colouration of neighbouring vowels, rather than actual audible palatal or velar offglides following the consonant.

Phonology

Phonotactics

In Old Dwarven - just like in its ancestors Proto-Norlokian -, the acceptable syllable structures were /CV/ and /CVC/. Vowel clusters were forbidden, all syllables have to begin with a consonant. Word-initial and word-final consonant clusters were forbidden. because of the accepted syllable structure, each consonant cluster could only consist of two consonants. When a syllable begins with a consonant that is identical to the one the previous syllable ends with, the result is gemination by assimilation. This even applies when one of the consonants is slender and the other is broad.

Consonants

In Old Dwarven, each individual consonant came with two variants: Slender (palatalized) and Broad (velarized/pharyngealized).

Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Dorsal
Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad
Nasal /mʲ/ /mˠ/ /nʲ/ /nˠ/
Plosive Voiceless /pʲ/ /pˠ/ /tʲ/ /tˠ/ [ʈˠ] /kʲ/ /k/ [k̠~q~χ]*
Voiced /bʲ/ /bˠ/ /dʲ/ /dˠ/ [ɖˠ] /gʲ/ /g/
Fricative Voiceless /sʲ/ /sˠ/ /ʃʲ/ [ɕ] /ʃˠ/ [ʂˠ]
Voiced /zʲ/ /zˠ/ /ʒʲ/ [ʑ] /ʒˠ/ [ʐˠ]
Approximant Unrounded /lʲ/ /lˠ/ /j/ /ʔ/
Rounded /ɥ/ /w/
Rhotic /rʲ/ /rˠ/
  • In Steelhelm, the voiceless broad dorsal stop /k/ was pronounced as a fricative [χ].
  • The broad coronal stops /tˠ dˠ/ had retroflex allophones [ʈˠ ɖˠ] in clusters with the corresponding postalveolar fricatives /ʃˠ ʒˠ/, /ʃˠtˠ tˠʃˠ ʒˠdˠ dˠʒˠ/ respectively being pronounced as [ʂˠʈˠ ʈ͡ʂˠ ʐˠɖˠ ɖ͡ʐˠ]
  • The consonant clusters /tˠsˠ tˠʃˠ tʲsʲ tʲʃʲ dˠzˠ dˠʒˠ dʲzʲ dʲʒʲ/ respectively allophonically coalesce into affricates [t͡sˠ ʈ͡ʂˠ t͡sʲ t͡ɕ d͡zˠ ɖ͡ʐˠ d͡zʲ d͡ʑ], just like in the successor languages.

Vowels

Old Dwarven had seven monophthongs - /a aː ə i iː u uː/ - and four diphthongs /aj aw iw uj/. Unlike in the predecessor language, Proto-Norlokian, these vowels were heavily coloured by the surrounding consonants.

/CʲV/ /CˠV/
/iː/ [iː] [ɪː~eː]
/i/ [i] [ɪ~e]
/uː/ [uː~ʉː] [ʊː~oː]
/u/ [u~ʉ] [ʊ~o]
/aː/ [æː] [ɑː]
/a/ [æ] [ɑ]
/ə/ [ə̆]
/aj/ [æi̯] [ɑɪ̯~ɑe̯]
/aw/ [æu̯~æʉ̯] [ɑʊ̯~ɑo̯]
/iw/ [iu̯~iʉ̯] [ɪʊ̯~eo̯]
/uj/ [ui̯~ʉi̯] [ʊɪ̯~oe̯]

Vowel correspondences with later variants

Old Dwarven Classical Koiné
+ most dialects at the time
Contemporary Koiné
+ most contemporary dialects
/CʲV/ /iː/ [iː] [iː] [iə̯]
/i/ [i] [i] [ɪ]
/uː/ [uː~ʉː] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/u/ [u~ʉ] [ʉ] [ɵ]
/aː/ [æː] [æː] [aɪ̯]
/a/ [æ] [æ] [æ]
/ə/ [ə̆] [∅] [∅]
/aj/ [æi̯] [ɛː] [eɪ̯]
/aw/ [æu̯~æʉ̯] [œː] [øʏ̯]
/iw/ [iu̯~iʉ̯] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/uj/ [ui̯~ʉi̯] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/CˠV/ /iː/ [ɪː~eː] [eː] [iə̯]
/i/ [ɪ~e] [e] [ɛ]
/uː/ [ʊː~oː] [oː] [uə̯]
/u/ [ʊ~o] [o] [ɔ]
/aː/ [ɑː] [ɑː] [aʊ̯]
/a/ [ɑ] [ɑ] [ɑ]
/ə/ [ə̆] [∅] [∅]
/aj/ [ɑɪ̯~ɑe̯] [ɑɪ̯] [ɔɪ̯]
/aw/ [ɑʊ̯~ɑo̯] [ɔː] [oʊ̯]
/iw/ [ɪʊ̯~eo̯] [øː] [yə̯]
/uj/ [ʊɪ̯~oe̯] [øː] [yə̯]