Difference between revisions of "Dwarven Koiné"

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|script = [[Dwarven script]]
 
|script = [[Dwarven script]]
 
|ethnicity = [[Dwarves]] and [[Gnomes]]
 
|ethnicity = [[Dwarves]] and [[Gnomes]]
}}'''Dwarven Koiné''' is the [[Wikipedia:Koiné language|closest equivalent to a standard variant]] of the [[Dwarven language]], created by an amalgamation of the most influential dialects, with influence from the conservative [[Temple Dwarven language|Temple Dwarven]].  
+
}}'''Dwarven Koiné''' is the [[Wikipedia:Koiné language|closest equivalent to a standard variant]] of the [[Dwarven language]], created by an amalgamation of the most influential [[Dwarven dialects|dialects]], with influence from the conservative [[Temple Dwarven language|Temple Dwarven]].  
  
 
== Evolution from [[Classical Dwarven language|Classical Koiné]] ==
 
== Evolution from [[Classical Dwarven language|Classical Koiné]] ==
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* The voiced bilabial fricatives {{IPA/broad|βˠ βʲ}} and the labio-dorsal approximants {{IPA/broad|w ɥ}} merge into labiodental approximants {{IPA/broad|ʋˠ ʋʲ}}.
 
* The voiced bilabial fricatives {{IPA/broad|βˠ βʲ}} and the labio-dorsal approximants {{IPA/broad|w ɥ}} merge into labiodental approximants {{IPA/broad|ʋˠ ʋʲ}}.
 
* The light dorsal {{IPA/broad|ç}} is debuccalized to {{IPA/broad|h}}, while {{IPA/broad|ʝ}} is fully merged into {{IPA/broad|j}}. The dark dorsal {{IPA/broad|x ɣ}} remained unchanged.
 
* The light dorsal {{IPA/broad|ç}} is debuccalized to {{IPA/broad|h}}, while {{IPA/broad|ʝ}} is fully merged into {{IPA/broad|j}}. The dark dorsal {{IPA/broad|x ɣ}} remained unchanged.
* Vowel shifts:
+
* Vowel shift:
** The light vowels {{IPA/narrow|æ æː ɛː œː i ʉ ʉː}} respectively shift to {{IPA/narrow|æ aɪ̯ eɪ̯ øʏ̯ ɪ ɵ }}
+
** '''First stage:''' The short vowels {{IPA/broad|e o i ʉ}} were lowered to {{IPA/narrow|ɛ ɔ ɪ ɵ}}, while the long vowels {{IPA/broad|ɛː eː œː øː ʉː ɔː oː}} were respectively raised to {{IPA/narrow|øː yː yː oː }}. {{IPA/broad|æː ɒː}} were either unaffected, or possibly raised {{IPA/narrow|ɛː ɔː}}. This happened in all variants.
** The dark vowels {{IPA/narrow|ɒ ɒː ɒɪ̯ ɔː e eː o øː}} respectively shift to {{IPA/narrow|ɒ aʊ̯ ɔɪ̯ oʊ̯ ɛ ɔ uː yː}}
+
*** This meant that the vowels {{IPA/broad|iː yː}} - originating from the merger of the historical light {{IPA/broad|iː ʉː}} and the dark {{IPA/broad|eː øː}} - could now appear after both slender and broad consonants, making them neutral vowels.
** The long close vowels {{IPA/narrow|iː yː uː}} diphthongize {{IPA/narrow|iə̯ yə̯ uə̯}} in mainstream speech. In contrast with the aforementioend shifts that took place very early, this is a more recent development.
+
** '''Second stage:''' The long vowels {{IPA/broad|æː ɒː eː øː oː iː yː uː}} were diphthongized {{IPA/narrow|aɪ̯ aʊ̯ eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oʊ̯ iə̯ yə̯ uə̯}}. This happened in the koiné language, and the majority of dialects ''(both innovative and conservative)'' - however, a minority of [[Dwarven dialects#Conservative vs Innovative|conservative dialects]] did not partake in this shift, and thus retained the long vowels.
 
* Modern Dwarven Koiné also developed [[Wikipedia:Final-obstruent devoicing|terminal devoicing]].
 
* Modern Dwarven Koiné also developed [[Wikipedia:Final-obstruent devoicing|terminal devoicing]].
  

Revision as of 17:11, 14 January 2020

Language: English
Dwarven Koiné
RegionNorthern Etrand
EthnicityDwarves and Gnomes
Native speakers
see Dwarven language
Norlokian
Early forms
Dwarven script
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Dwarven Koiné is the closest equivalent to a standard variant of the Dwarven language, created by an amalgamation of the most influential dialects, with influence from the conservative Temple Dwarven.

Evolution from Classical Koiné

  • The voiceless bilabial fricatives /ɸˠ ɸʲ/ become labiodental /fˠ fʲ/.
  • The voiced bilabial fricatives /βˠ βʲ/ and the labio-dorsal approximants /w ɥ/ merge into labiodental approximants /ʋˠ ʋʲ/.
  • The light dorsal /ç/ is debuccalized to /h/, while /ʝ/ is fully merged into /j/. The dark dorsal /x ɣ/ remained unchanged.
  • Vowel shift:
    • First stage: The short vowels /e o i ʉ/ were lowered to [ɛ ɔ ɪ ɵ], while the long vowels /ɛː eː œː øː ʉː ɔː oː/ were respectively raised to [eː iː øː yː yː oː uː]. /æː ɒː/ were either unaffected, or possibly raised [ɛː ɔː]. This happened in all variants.
      • This meant that the vowels /iː yː/ - originating from the merger of the historical light /iː ʉː/ and the dark /eː øː/ - could now appear after both slender and broad consonants, making them neutral vowels.
    • Second stage: The long vowels /æː ɒː eː øː oː iː yː uː/ were diphthongized [aɪ̯ aʊ̯ eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oʊ̯ iə̯ yə̯ uə̯]. This happened in the koiné language, and the majority of dialects (both innovative and conservative) - however, a minority of conservative dialects did not partake in this shift, and thus retained the long vowels.
  • Modern Dwarven Koiné also developed terminal devoicing.

Vowel correspondences with earlier variants

Old Dwarven Classical Koiné
+ most dialects at the time
Contemporary Koiné
+ most contemporary dialects
/CʲV/ /iː/ [iː] [iː] [iə̯]
/i/ [i] [i] [ɪ]
/uː/ [uː~ʉː] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/u/ [u~ʉ] [ʉ] [ɵ]
/aː/ [æː] [æː] [aɪ̯]
/a/ [æ] [æ] [æ]
/ə/ [ə̆] [∅] [∅]
/aj/ [æi̯] [ɛː] [eɪ̯]
/aw/ [æu̯~æʉ̯] [œː] [øʏ̯]
/iw/ [iu̯~iʉ̯] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/uj/ [ui̯~ʉi̯] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/CˠV/ /iː/ [ɪː~eː] [eː] [iə̯]
/i/ [ɪ~e] [e] [ɛ]
/uː/ [ʊː~oː] [oː] [uə̯]
/u/ [ʊ~o] [o] [ɔ]
/aː/ [ɑː] [ɑː] [aʊ̯]
/a/ [ɑ] [ɑ] [ɑ]
/ə/ [ə̆] [∅] [∅]
/aj/ [ɑɪ̯~ɑe̯] [ɑɪ̯] [ɔɪ̯]
/aw/ [ɑʊ̯~ɑo̯] [ɔː] [oʊ̯]
/iw/ [ɪʊ̯~eo̯] [øː] [yə̯]
/uj/ [ʊɪ̯~oe̯] [øː] [yə̯]

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Dorsal
Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender
Nasal /mˠ/ /mʲ/ /nˠ/ /nʲ/ [ŋ] [ŋʲ]
Stop Voiceless /pˠ/ /pʲ/ /tˠ/ /tʲ/ /t͡sˠ/ /t͡sʲ/ /t͡ʃˠ/ [ʈ͡ʂˠ] /t͡ʃʲ/ [t͡ɕ] /k/ [k̠~q̟] /kʲ/ [k̟~c̠]
Voiced /bˠ/ /bʲ/ /dˠ/ /dʲ/ /d͡zˠ/ /d͡zʲ/ /d͡ʒˠ/ [ɖ͡ʐˠ] /d͡ʒʲ/ [d͡ʑ] /g/ [g̠~ɢ̟] /gʲ/ [g̟~ɟ̠]
Fricative Voiceless /fˠ/ /fʲ/ /θˠ/ /θʲ/ /sˠ/ /sʲ/ /ʃˠ/ [ʂˠ] /ʃʲ/ [ɕ] /x/ [x̠~χ̟] /h/ [h~ç]
Voiced /ðˠ/ /ðʲ/ /zˠ/ /zʲ/ /ʒˠ/ [ʐˠ] /ʒʲ/ [ʑ] /ɣ/ [ɣ̠~ʁ̟] /j/
Liquid /ʋˠ/ /ʋʲ/ /lˠ/ /lʲ/ /rʲ/ /ʀ/
  • With the exception of the postalveolar, dorsal, rhotic and lateral consonants, the main difference between slender and broad consonants is not in the articulation of the consonant itself - meaning that both /pˠ/ and /pʲ/ are typically [p] - (most speakers don't even pronounce a palatal and velar offglide after slender and broad consonants respectively, especially not in fast, casual speech), but in the colouring of the historical vowels that came after it, setting constraints upon what kind of vowels can appear after said consonant. This allows speakers to easily analyze words for the roots.
    • At this point, many linguists consider the slender and broad consonants to be allophones rather than truly separate phonemes, with broad consonants and slender consonants being conditioned by light and dark vowels respectively, contrasting only before neutral consonants (which originated from the mergers of previously distinct dark and light vowels anyhow). This contrast may also be reintroduced before unstressed vowels.
  • Dwarven Koiné - as well as the majority of dialects - have terminal devoicing, which means that voiced stops, fricatives and affricates devoice word-finally.
  • The voiceless slender dorsal fricative /h/ is glottal when followed by a vowel [h], dorso-palatal [ç] otherwise. The other dorsal consonants are more of in free variation:
    • The slender /kʲ gʲ/ have a free variation between pre-velar [k̟ g̟] and post-palatal [c̠ ɟ̠].
    • The broad /k g x ɣ/ have a free variation between post-velar [k̠ g̠ x̠ ɣ̠] and pre-uvular [q̟ ɢ̟ χ̟ ʁ̟].

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close Tense /iə̯/ /yə̯/ /uə̯/
Lax /ɪ/ /ɵ/ [ʊ]
Mid Tense /eɪ̯/ /øʏ̯/ /oʊ̯/
Lax /ɛ/ [œ] /ɔ/
Open Tense /aɪ̯/ /ɔɪ̯/ /aʊ̯/
Lax /æ/ /ɒ/
  • The distribution of vowels is limited by these constraints:
    • The vowels in bright yellow /æ aɪ̯ eɪ̯ øʏ̯ ɪ ɵ/ are classified as "light vowels" and thus can only appear after slender consonants
    • The vowels in grey /ɒ ɛ ɔ aʊ̯ ɔɪ̯ oʊ̯ uə̯/ are classified as "dark vowels" and thus can only appear after broad consonants
    • The vowels in greyish-yellow /iə̯ yə̯/ are classified as "neutral vowels" and thus can appear after both broad and slender consonants. This is due to the fact that /iə̯ yə̯/ originate from the mergers of the previously distinct pairs /iː ʉː/ and /eː øː/ - the earlier pair were light vowels, the latter pair were dark vowels.
    • The vowels in blue /œ ʊ/ are classified as "foreign vowels" and thus can only appear in loanwords. Whether they are constrained to appear after broad or slender consonants is not set in stone, as it depends on how does the individual dwarf precisely pronounce them, if they aren't merged with the closest native vowel - /ɵ/ - to begin with. If they are merged into /ɵ/, both are analyzed as light vowels and force preceeding consonants to be slender. Otherwise, /œ/ is considered a light vowel and /ʊ/ is considered a dark vowel.
  • Unstressed short vowels are reduced to a schwa [ə], but keep their palatalizing/lightening or velarizing/darkening effect on the preceding consonant. This results in dark and light consonants also contrasting before the schwa /ə/.
    • Lots of speakers front /ʲə/ to [ʲe~ʲe̞] and retract /ˠə/ to [ˠɤ~ˠɤ̞], which avoids making the allophonic feature contrastive.
    • In the prestige dialect, this unstressed short vowel is always pronounced. In colloquial varieties, this vowel however is removed word-finally, as well as before nasals and liquids (creating syllabic consonants).
    • In Temple Dwarven, this vowel reduction never happens - all vowels are intended to be pronounced clearly, as if they were stressed.

Stress

Primary stress always falls on the first syllable. Secondary stress falls on odd-numbered syllables, with the one extra rule that the final syllable in a multi-syllable word can never be stressed. Stress is never indicated in the orthography.