Difference between revisions of "Classical Wood Elven language"

From Ways of Darkness
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 156: Line 156:
  
 
* The nasal vowels were most likely dissimilated into nasal+stop clusters before stop consonants. It is almost certain that sequences like {{IPA/broad|ãba}}, {{IPA/broad|ãda}} and {{IPA/broad|ãga}} were actually pronounced as {{IPA/narrow|amba}}, {{IPA/narrow|anda}} and {{IPA/narrow|aŋga}} respectively, just like in [[Wood Elven language|Contemporary Wood Elven]].
 
* The nasal vowels were most likely dissimilated into nasal+stop clusters before stop consonants. It is almost certain that sequences like {{IPA/broad|ãba}}, {{IPA/broad|ãda}} and {{IPA/broad|ãga}} were actually pronounced as {{IPA/narrow|amba}}, {{IPA/narrow|anda}} and {{IPA/narrow|aŋga}} respectively, just like in [[Wood Elven language|Contemporary Wood Elven]].
 +
** The nasalized schwa {{IPA/broad|ə̃}} was probably pronounced as a syllabic nasal {{IPA/narrow|n̩}} that assimilated to following consonants ({{IPA/narrow|m̩}} before {{IPA/broad|p b ɸ}}, {{IPA/narrow|ŋ̩}} before {{IPA/broad|k g}}, etc.), just like in Contemporarily Wood Elven.
 
* '''Late Classical Wood Elven''' ''(around 100 BEKE)'', {{IPA/broad|ɛː ɛ̃ː ɔː ɔ̃ː}} merged into {{IPA/broad|eː ẽː oː õː}}.
 
* '''Late Classical Wood Elven''' ''(around 100 BEKE)'', {{IPA/broad|ɛː ɛ̃ː ɔː ɔ̃ː}} merged into {{IPA/broad|eː ẽː oː õː}}.
  

Revision as of 11:53, 10 January 2020

Language: English
Classical Wood Elven
RegionDragoc
EthnicityWood Elves
Extinctevolved into Current Wood Elven around 200 AEKE.
Torgyrian
  • Elven
    • Classical Wood Elven
Early forms
Wood Elven cuneiforms
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Classical Wood Elven was the stage of the Wood Elven language from 700 BEKE to 200 AEKE.

While most languages at the time had one or a few sudden early sound shifts that marked their evolution, Classical Wood Elven was known or being phonologically rather unstable, with a fluidly and gradually shifting standard pronunciation, sharply contrasting its solid grammar and large amount of written literature.

Unlike in Classical High Elven, Classical Wood Elven did not have diglossia, the vernacular language and the literary language never deviated too much from each other. In fact, written Classical Wood Elven is still intelligible by speakers of Current Wood Elven.

Evolution from Archaic Wood Elven

  • In Late Archaic Wood Elven, the language started having prosthesis - /e/ became /je/ when no consonant preceded it.
  • Coda simplifications:
    • Syllable-final stops debuccalized into a glottal stop /ʔ/ and fricatives into a glottal fricative /h/ if they were not followed directly by a vowel or a semivowel. Otherwise - if they were in fact followed by a vowel or semivowel - they migrated to the onset of the following syllable. These new glottal consonants were allophones, not new phonemes.
    • Nasals that aren't followed directly by a vowel or semivowel are replaced by the nasalization of the preceding vowel or semivowel, creating a new set of nasalized vowels and semivowels.
  • The replacement of any remaining /ŋ/ with /g/.
  • Compensatory lengthening:
    • The aforementioned /ʔ/ is replaced by the compensatory lengthening (gemination) of succeeding consonants excluding semivowels and /r/. Otherwise, they are replaced by compensatory lengthening of the syllable's vowel. For example, /atka/[aʔka][akːa], but /at/[aʔ][aː].
    • The aforementioned /h/ is always, without exceptions, replaced by the compensatory lengthening of the syllable's vowel. For example, /as/[ah][aː].
  • /p/ is consistently lenited to [ɸ], except when it's geminated, where it remained [pː].
  • The affricates /t͡s d͡z/ are deaffricated to [s z].
  • Monophthongization:
    • /aw jaj ew ej ow iw//ɔː jɛː joː eː oː juː/
      • Some dialects also had /aj oj//ɛː eː/
    • /aw̃ jaj̃ ew̃ ej̃ ow̃ iw̃//ɔ̃ː jɛ̃ː jõː ẽː õː jũː/
      • Some dialects also had /aj̃ oj̃//ɛ̃ː ẽː/
  • Palatalization: /n t d s z/[ɲ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ] before /i ĩ j/.
  • Sulcalization: /t d/[t͡s d͡z] before /u ũ w/.
  • Further monophthongization: /əw əw̃ əj əj̃//u ũ i ĩ/
    • This happened after the palatalization and sulcalization, thus it reintroduced combinations like /tu/, /du/, /ni/, /ti/, /di/, /si/ and /zi/ into the language.
  • Loss of post-consontal /w/ and the delabialization of the labio-velar /kʷ gʷ/ into simple velar [k g].
  • Loss of the labio-velar approximant /w/ before any vowel other than /a/ and /ə/ (or their nasalized and counterparts).

Phonology

This represents the pronunciation of Classical Wood Elven around 400 BEKE. Most sound shifts were gradual.

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plain Sibilant Palatal Plain
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ɲ/
Stop Voiceless /p/ /t/ /t͡s/ /t͡ɕ/ /kʲ/ /k/
Voiced /b/ /d/ /d͡z/ /d͡ʑ/ /gʲ/ /g/
Fricative Voiceless /ɸ/ /s/ /ɕ/
Voiced /z/ /ʑ/
Approximant / Flap /ɾ/ /j/, /j̃/ /w/, /w̃/
  • The voiceless bilabial stop /p/ appeared only in foreign words, or when geminated.
  • The nasal semivowels /j̃ w̃/ only existred in the syllable coda as parts of nasal diphthongs.
  • Late Classical Wood Elven (around 100 BEKE) lost the distinction between voiced affricates and fricatives, initiating the merger of /z/ and /d͡z/ into one phoneme, and of /ʑ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into one phoneme.

Vowels

Oral Nasal
Front Central Back Front Central Back
Close /i/ /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /ĩ/ /ĩː/ /ũ/ /ũː/
Mid /eː/ /e/ /ɛː/ /ə/ /əː/ /o/ /oː/ /ɔː/ /ẽː/ /ẽ/ /ɛ̃ː/ /ə̃/ /ə̃ː/ /õ/ /õː/ /ɔ̃ː/
Open /a/ /aː/ /ã/ /ãː/
  • The nasal vowels were most likely dissimilated into nasal+stop clusters before stop consonants. It is almost certain that sequences like /ãba/, /ãda/ and /ãga/ were actually pronounced as [amba], [anda] and [aŋga] respectively, just like in Contemporary Wood Elven.
    • The nasalized schwa /ə̃/ was probably pronounced as a syllabic nasal [n̩] that assimilated to following consonants ([m̩] before /p b ɸ/, [ŋ̩] before /k g/, etc.), just like in Contemporarily Wood Elven.
  • Late Classical Wood Elven (around 100 BEKE), /ɛː ɛ̃ː ɔː ɔ̃ː/ merged into /eː ẽː oː õː/.

Grammar

Classical Wood Elven was a flexible subject-object-verb and agglunative language. It had also preserved the vowel harmony of its ancestor Proto-Elven in grammar, having most (but not all) conjugations come with two variants, depending on what kind of vowel did the Proto-Elven root word end with.

Nouns

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Personal Neuter
nominative -o / -(y)o -a / -(y)a -on / -(y)on -ai / -(y)ê -i
genitive -oan / -(y)oan -anai / -(y)anyê -an / -(y)an -ain / -(y)ên -in
dative -o / -(y)o -anô / -(y)anyô -an / -(y)an -aya / -(y)aya -re
accusative -oanu / -eanu -anari / -(y)anyari -anan / -(y)anyan -ayan / -(y)ayan -ine
locative -uwan / -(y)uwan -uwanai -uwanan -uwain -uin

The various cases had the following functions:

  • The nominative case usually marks the subject of the sentence.
  • The genitive case marks ownership. For example, "yôbyoan fiomyanyo" means "(the) male elf's manliness".
  • The dative case usually marks indirect objects, similar to the use of English "to" and "for"
  • the accusative case usually marks direct objects, ones that are being directly targeted.
  • The locative case is used in conjunction with various suffixes, in itself it has no meaning at all.

Pronouns

Person First Second Third
Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative aga age fo ko sa kon
genitive magai magen fon fén koan sanai kan sén
dative ago agé fuwan féri kuwa sanô kean seya
accusative againo agayan fonan feyan koano sanaya kanan seyan
locative aguwan agen fonawan feyên kuwan sonai konan soin

Verbs

Simple Continuous
Past -iru / -iryu -yúmo / -yúme
Present -iri -igio / -igie
Future -igo / -igyo -ingyo
  • The infinitive is marked by -iri, just like Present Simple.
  • Adding an extra -i at the end turns the verb perfect. An example:
    • "seppiri" means "to make someone}}.omething beautiful". It is in Present Simple.
    • "seppigyo" is the same verb, but in Future Simple instead. For example, "you will make her beautiful".
    • "seppigyoi" is the same verb, but in Future Perfect instead. For example, "you will have made her beautiful".

The present simple also has a secondary role - being used for ordering. For example, in Classical Wood Elven, there was no distinction between stating that someone is doing something and ordering someone to do something. The difference between stating facts and ordering}}.ommanding is indicated by context and tone of voice.

Adjectives

Adjectives had three forms in Classical Wood Elven:

  • Normal adjective: -ani / -(y)ani
  • Comparitive adjective: -anori / -(y)aneri
  • Superlative adjective: -anogi / -yanyogi

Adverbs

Adverbs had three forms in Classical Wood Elven:

  • Normal adverb: -ann / -(y)ann
  • Comparitive adverb: -ainn / -(y)ênn
  • Superlative adverb: -ôga / -(y)ôga

Inclusive or vs Exclusive or

Classical Wood Elven - and by extension, all of its descendant languages - distinguish between the "inclusive or" and the "exclusive or". The earlier means, "either A, B, or both of them", while the latter means "either A or B, but not both of them - never both of them".

  • The word for the inclusive or is 「zó」
  • The word for the exclusive or is 「ko」

Numerical system

Classical Wood Elven used a hexadecimal system.

Numbers larger than 16 would be formed by chaining up multiple numbers and adding a postfix. Numbers larger than 16 and smaller than 256 are divided into two numbers that are smaller or equal to 16. Numbers larger than 256 but smaller than 65536 are divided into two numbers that are both smaller than or equal to 256. Similiar segmentation goes on with numbers larger than 65536 but smaller than 4294967296, or numbers larger than 4294967296.

Numbers from 0 to 16

  • 0: myoi
  • 1: ô
  • 2:
  • 3: gon
  • 4: nai
  • 5: sai
  • 6: zoi
  • 7: goi
  • 8:
  • 9: rógô (greater 1)
  • 10: rófô (greater 2)
  • 11: rógon (greater 3)
  • 12: rónai (greater 4)
  • 13: rósai (greater 5)
  • 14: rózoi (greater 6)
  • 15: rógoi (greater 7)
  • 16: róté (greater 8)

Numerical postfixes

  • hexadecimal up: -awa / -(y)awa
    • Used to separate the upper and lower segments of a hexadecimal number larger than 16 but smaller than 256. For example, "ôawa-ô" - "1 up 1" - is the hexadecimal number 0x11, equivalent to the decimal 17. Logic and consistency would suggest that 16 (or 0x10) be said as "ôawa" - "1 up", but it is actually said as "róté" - 16. The reason for that is that the concept of zero was discovered by the Proto-Elves roughly at the same time as they transitioned from octal to hexadecimal, and the use of the number carried over.
  • double:
    • Used to separate the upper and lower segments of a hexadecimal number larger than 256 but smaller than 65536 - both segments being numbers smaller than or equal to 256. For example, "ôawa ôí ôawa ô" - "1 up 1 double 1 up 1" - is the hexadecimal number 0x1111, equivalent to the decimal 4369. Both segments are 0x11, and the usage of the word "double" combines them into one number: 0x1111.
  • quad: -kotsu / -kyotsu
    • Used to separate the upper and lower segments of a hexadecimal number larger than 65536 but smaller than 4294967296 - both segments being smaller than or equal to 65536. For example, "ôawa ôí ôawa ôkotsu ôawa ôí ôawa ô" - "1 up 1 double 1 up 1 quad 1 up 1 double 1 up 1" - is the hexadecimal number 0x11111111, equivalent to the decimal 286331153.
  • octa:-échi
    • Used to combine the upper and lower segments of a hexadecimal number larger than 4294967296 but smaller than the second power of 4294967296. Used similarly to quad and double, with both segments being smaller than 4294967296.
  • negative: -nyú
    • Used to postfix a negative number. For example, '"ôawa ô" - "1 up 1" - is the equivalent to the decimal 17, while '"ôawa ônyú" - "1 up 1 negative" - is the equivalent to the decimal -17.
  • Ordinator: -izhi
    • Turns a cardinal number into an ordinal number. For example, "ô" means "one", while "ôizhi" means "first".
  • Radix point: tsui
    • Literally means "full", it separates the integral part of a number from the fractional part. For example, "ô tsui róté" means 0x1.F, equivalent to the decimal 1.9375.