Difference between revisions of "Classical Dwarven language"

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Line 5: Line 5:
 
|speakers      = ''none'' (extinct)
 
|speakers      = ''none'' (extinct)
 
|familycolor  = dwarven
 
|familycolor  = dwarven
|extinct = spoken variant evolved to [[Dwarven Koiné]] around 100 AEKE - written variant eventually merged into [[Temple Dwarven language|Temple Dwarven]]
+
|extinct = spoken variant evolved to [[Dwarven Koiné]] around 100 AEKE - written variant eventually merged into [[Temple Dwarven language|Temple Dwarven]].<br>Influenced [[Old and Middle Etrandish dialects#Northern Etrandish|Old Northern Etrandish]]
 
|script = [[Dwarven script]]
 
|script = [[Dwarven script]]
 
|ethnicity = [[Dwarves]] and [[Gnomes]]
 
|ethnicity = [[Dwarves]] and [[Gnomes]]

Latest revision as of 17:38, 14 January 2020

Language: English
Classical Dwarven
RegionNorthern Etrand
EthnicityDwarves and Gnomes
Extinctspoken variant evolved to Dwarven Koiné around 100 AEKE - written variant eventually merged into Temple Dwarven.
Influenced Old Northern Etrandish
Norlokian
  • Classical Dwarven
Early forms
Dwarven script
Language codes
ISO 639-3

The Classical Dwarven language - also known as Classical Dwarven Koiné - was a variant of Dwarven language, or rather, a stage during the evolution of the Dwarven Koiné. It was the lingua franca / koiné of the Dwarven region while it was a spoken language (between 1000 BEKE and 100 AEKE) - its spoken form eventually evolved into the contemporary koiné, while its written form merged into and influenced Temple Dwarven.

Evolution from Old Dwarven

The earliest step in the evolution was the voiced stops /bˠ bʲ dˠ dʲ g gʲ/ developing post-vocalic allophones [βˠ βʲ ðˠ ðʲ ɣ ʝ]. This was followed by the voiceless stops /pˠ pʲ tˠ tʲ k kʲ/ becoming voiced in the same postvocalic environments [bˠ bʲ dˠ dʲ g gʲ], except before other voiceless stops (including the glottal stop), where they became voiceless fricatives instead [ɸˠ ɸʲ θˠ θʲ x ç].

The above-described consonant shift was purely allophonic (thus neither phonemicized nor lexicalized) until complete removal of the schwa /ə/, which made the new non-sibilant fricatives phonemic. The voiced fricatives /βˠ βʲ ðˠ ðʲ ɣ ʝ/ would be devoiced word-initially in clusters with voiceless stops, such as /pˠəgaːrˠ//pˠɣaːrˠ//pˠxaːrˠ/.

The aforementioned schwa-removal and word-initial progressivevoicing assimilation in consonant clusters also led to the creation of a whole new class of phonemic affricates /p͡ɸˠ p͡ɸʲ b͡βˠ b͡βʲ t͡θˠ t͡θʲ dðˠ dðʲ t͡sˠ t͡sʲ d͡zˠ d͡zʲ t͡ʃˠ t͡ʃʲ d͡ʒˠ d͡ʒʲ k͡x k̟͡ç g͡ɣ g̟͡ʝ/. When this coalesence happened word-medially, it produced geminated affricates.

However, most of these only appeared in their simple, ungeminated forms word-initially, usually appearing only in geminated forms word-medially. Many of them were unstable and would be either deaffricated or simplified into stops later on.

Simultaneously with the aforementioned consonant shift, the vowels /a aː i iː u uː aj aw uj iw/ had their respective allophones consolidated as [æ æː i iː ʉ ʉː ɛː œː ʉː ʉː] after slender consonants, [ɒ ɒː e eː o oː ɑɪ̯ ɔː øː øː] after broad consonants. After the removal of the glottal stop /ʔ/ and the palatal approximant /j/ (which happened after the aforementioend consonant shifts), these allophones truly became phonemic, although still with the constraint of only being allowed to appear either word-initially or after their respective class of consonants.

Phonology

Consonants

The consonant inventory of Early Classical Dwarven
Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Dorsal
Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender
Nasal /mˠ/ /mʲ/ /nˠ/ /nʲ/ [ŋ] [ŋʲ]
Stop Voiceless /pˠ/ /pʲ/ /tˠ/ /tʲ/ /k/ /kʲ/
Voiced /bˠ/ /bʲ/ /dˠ/ /dʲ/ /g/ /gʲ/
Affricate Voiceless /p͡ɸˠ/ /p͡ɸʲ/ /t͡θˠ/ /t͡θʲ/ /t͡sˠ/ /t͡sʲ/ /t͡ʃˠ/ [ʈ͡ʂˠ] /t͡ʃʲ/ [t͡ɕ] /k͡x/ /kʲ͡ç/
Voiced /b͡βˠ/ /b͡βʲ/ /d͡ðˠ/ /d͡ðʲ/ /d͡zˠ/ /d͡zʲ/ /d͡ʒˠ/ [ɖ͡ʐˠ] /d͡ʒʲ/ [d͡ʑ] /g͡ɣ/ /gʲ͡ʝ/
Fricative Voiceless /ɸˠ/ /ɸʲ/ /θˠ/ /θʲ/ /sˠ/ /sʲ/ /ʃˠ/ [ʂˠ] /ʃʲ/ [ɕ] /x/ /ç/
Voiced /βˠ/ /βʲ/ /ðˠ/ /ðʲ/ /zˠ/ /zʲ/ /ʒˠ/ [ʐˠ] /ʒʲ/ [ʑ] /ɣ/ /ʝ/
Liquid /w/ /ɥ/ /lˠ/ /lʲ/ /rʲ/ /ʀ/

With some exceptions - namely the opposition of the broad [lˠ ʈ͡ʂˠ ɖ͡ʐˠ ʂ ʐ ʀ k͡x g͡ɣ x ɣ] versus the slender [lʲ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ rʲ k̟͡ç g̟͡ʝ ç ʝ] - the difference between the broad and slender consonants wasn't the articulation of the consonant itself (such as a palatal or velar offglide), but the colouring on the vowels, with historical /a aː aj aw i iː u uː iw uj/ being pronounced as /ɒ ɒː ɒɪ̯ ɔː e eː o oː øː øː/ after broad consonants and /æ æː ɛː œː i iː ʉ ʉː ʉː/ after slender consonants respectively.

Many of these consonants weren't particularly stable and were noted to be prone to being shifted in pronounciation in casual speech very early on. The voiced dorsal affricates /g͡ɣ gʲ͡ʝ/ were particularly unstable, and thus were the first to deaffricate [ɣ ʝ] (when not geminated) very early on, and simplify to stops [gː gʲː] when geminated. This was followed by all the other non-sibillant affricates /p͡ɸˠ p͡ɸʲ b͡βˠ b͡βʲ t͡θˠ t͡θʲ d͡ðˠ d͡ðʲ k͡x kʲ͡ç/ following suit and deaffricating, thus merging with their fricative counterparts. When geminated, they became simple stops [pˠː pʲː bˠː bʲː tˠː tʲː dˠː dʲː kː kʲː] instead. The sibilant affricates /t͡sˠ t͡sʲ d͡zˠ d͡zʲ t͡ʃˠ t͡ʃʲ d͡ʒˠ d͡ʒʲ/ were not deaffricated, presumably because their fricative counterparts already appeared word-initially.

The consonant inventory of Late Classical Dwarven
Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Dorsal
Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender Broad Slender
Nasal /mˠ/ /mʲ/ /nˠ/ /nʲ/ [ŋ] [ŋʲ]
Stop Voiceless /pˠ/ /pʲ/ /tˠ/ /tʲ/ /t͡sˠ/ /t͡sʲ/ /t͡ʃˠ/ [ʈ͡ʂˠ] /t͡ʃʲ/ [t͡ɕ] /k/ /kʲ/
Voiced /bˠ/ /bʲ/ /dˠ/ /dʲ/ /d͡zˠ/ /d͡zʲ/ /d͡ʒˠ/ [ɖ͡ʐˠ] /d͡ʒʲ/ [d͡ʑ] /g/ /gʲ/
Fricative Voiceless /ɸˠ/ /ɸʲ/ /θˠ/ /θʲ/ /sˠ/ /sʲ/ /ʃˠ/ [ʂˠ] /ʃʲ/ [ɕ] /x/ /ç/
Voiced /βˠ/ /βʲ/ /ðˠ/ /ðʲ/ /zˠ/ /zʲ/ /ʒˠ/ [ʐˠ] /ʒʲ/ [ʑ] /ɣ/ /ʝ/
Liquid /w/ /ɥ/ /lˠ/ /lʲ/ /rʲ/ /ʀ/

Vowels

Unlike its consonant system, the vowel system of Classical Dwarven was very much stable and remained virtually unchanged for an entire millenium. Or, at the very least, the precisely number of contrastive vowels never changed, only their exact articulations shifted gradually.

- Front Central Back
Close Long /iː/ /ʉː/
Short /i/ /ʉ/
Close-Mid Long /eː/ /øː/ /oː/
Short /e/ /o/
Open-Mid /ɛː/ /œː/ /ɔː/
Open Long /æː/ /ɒː/
Short /æ/ /ɒ/

The language also had one diphthong: /ɑɪ̯/.

The vowels in yellow - /æ æː ɛː œː i iː ʉ ʉː/ - could only appear after slender consonants (or word-initially), due to their historical origins as allophones of /a aː aj aw i iː u uː iw uj/ after slender consonants.

The vowels in grey - /ɒ ɒː ɒɪ̯ ɔː e eː o oː øː/ - could only appear after broad consonants (or word-initially), due to their historical origins as allophones of /a aː aj aw i iː u uː iw uj/ after broad consonants.

Vowel correspondences with earlier and later variants

Old Dwarven Classical Koiné
+ most dialects at the time
Contemporary Koiné
+ most contemporary dialects
/CʲV/ /iː/ [iː] [iː] [iə̯]
/i/ [i] [i] [ɪ]
/uː/ [uː~ʉː] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/u/ [u~ʉ] [ʉ] [ɵ]
/aː/ [æː] [æː] [aɪ̯]
/a/ [æ] [æ] [æ]
/ə/ [ə̆] [∅] [∅]
/aj/ [æi̯] [ɛː] [eɪ̯]
/aw/ [æu̯~æʉ̯] [œː] [øʏ̯]
/iw/ [iu̯~iʉ̯] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/uj/ [ui̯~ʉi̯] [ʉː] [yə̯]
/CˠV/ /iː/ [ɪː~eː] [eː] [iə̯]
/i/ [ɪ~e] [e] [ɛ]
/uː/ [ʊː~oː] [oː] [uə̯]
/u/ [ʊ~o] [o] [ɔ]
/aː/ [ɑː] [ɑː] [aʊ̯]
/a/ [ɑ] [ɑ] [ɑ]
/ə/ [ə̆] [∅] [∅]
/aj/ [ɑɪ̯~ɑe̯] [ɑɪ̯] [ɔɪ̯]
/aw/ [ɑʊ̯~ɑo̯] [ɔː] [oʊ̯]
/iw/ [ɪʊ̯~eo̯] [øː] [yə̯]
/uj/ [ʊɪ̯~oe̯] [øː] [yə̯]