Proto-Torgyrian language

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Language: English
Proto-Torgyrian
RegionThe Orient
EthnicityProto-Torgyrians
Extinctsplit into Proto-Elven, Proto-Limjiang and various other Torgyrian languages around 11 000 BEKE
Torgyrian
  • Proto-Torgyrian
none (oral language)
Language codes
ISO 639-3

The Proto-Torgyrian language is the unattested common ancestor of all the Torgyrian languages, making it the direct ancestor of Proto-Elven and Proto-Limjiang, as well as all their descendants. The language was never attested, all its speakers lived in an era where writing wasn't present. Even the location of the Proto-Torgyrians is disputed, but is assumed to be at the location of the Torgyrian Desert.

Phonology

Consonants

Unlike any of its descendant languages, Proto-Torgyrian did not have affricates, however it did have various phonemes not found in its descendant languages.

Labial Dental (Post)alveolar Dorsal Laryngeal
Plain Lateral Plain Lateral Plain Labialized
Nasal <m> /m/ [m] <n> /n/ [n̪] <ň> /n̠/ [ɳ~ɲ] <ń> /ŋ/ [ŋ] <ńw> /ŋʷ/ [ŋʷ]
Stop Aspirated <ph> /pʰ/ [pʰ] <th> /tʰ/ [t̪ʰ] <tlh> /t͡ɬʰ/ [t̪͡ɬ̪ʰ] <ťh> /t̠ʰ/ [ʈʰ~cʰ] <ťľh> /t̠͡ɬ̠ʰ/ [ʈ͡ꞎʰ~c͡ʎ̝̊ʰ] <kh> /kʰ/ [kʰ] <khw> /kʷʰ/ [kʷʰ]
Plain <p> /p/ [p] <t> /t/ [t̪] <tl> /t͡ɬ/ [t̪͡ɬ̪] <ť> /t̠/ [ʈ~c] <ťľ> /t̠͡ɬ̠/ [ʈ͡ꞎ~c͡ʎ̝̊] <k> /k/ [k] <kw> /kʷ/ [kʷ] <q> /q/ [q]
Voiced <b> /b/ [b] <d> /d/ [d̪] <dl> /d͡ɮ/ [d̪͡ɮ̪] <ď> /d̠/ [ɖ~ɟ] <ďľ> /d̠͡ɮ̠/ [ɖ͡ɭ̝~ɟ͡ʎ̝] <g> /g/ [g] <gw> /gʷ/ [gʷ]
Fricative Voiceless <s> /s/ [s̪] <š> /s̠/ [ʂ~ɕ]
Voiced <z> /z/ [z̪] <ž> /z̠/ [ʐ~ʑ]
Approximant <l> /l/ [ł̪] <ľ> /l̠/ [ɭ~ʎ] <j> /j/ [j] <w> /w/ [w] <`> /ʕ/ [ʕ̞ʷ~ɒ̯]
Rhotic <r> /r/ [r̪] <ř> /r̠/ [ɽ~ɾ̠ʲ] <ŕ> /ʀ/ [ʀ̝~ɐ̯]
  • The postalveolar consonants /n̠ t̠ʰ t̠ d̠ s̠ z̠ r̠ t̠͡ɬ̠ʰ t̠͡ɬ̠ d̠͡ɮ̠ l̠/ were normally realized as retroflex [ɳ ʈʰ ʈ ɖ ʂ ʐ ɽ ʈ͡ꞎʰ ʈ͡ꞎ ɖ͡ɭ̝ ɭ], unless they were directly preceding a front vowels - in that case, they were relized as alveolo-palatal [ɲ cʰ c ɟ ɕ ʑ ɾ̠ʲ c͡ʎ̝̊ʰ c͡ʎ̝̊ ɟ͡ʎ̝ ʎ].
  • /ʀ/ varied between a fricative trill [ʀ̝] and a semivowel [ɐ̯].
  • /ʕ/ was a labio-pharyngeal approximant [ʕ̞ʷ~ɒ̯].

Vowels

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close <i> /i/ [i] <ü> /y/ [ÿ] <ï> /ɯ/ [ɯ̈] <u> /u/ [u]
Mid <e> /e/ [e̞] <ö> /ø/ [ø̞̈] <ë> /ɤ/ [ɤ̞̈] <o> /o/ [o̞]
Open <ä> /æ/ [æ] <a> /ɑ/ [ɑ]

Grammar

Vocabulary

Proto-Torgyrian root words