Old and Middle Etrandish dialects

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Language: English

Old Etrandish and Middle Etrandish had a variety of dialects:

West Etrandish

Western Etrandish became the de facto standard during the Middle Etrandish period.

  • The diphthongization of /æː/ to /æi̯/ happened earlier than in other dialects, attested as 300 BEKE in writing, as opposed to the 150 BEKE in other dialects
  • /æi̯ ɑu̯/ became [ɐi̯ ɐu̯] as early as 150 BEKE. This change only spread to other dailects between 0 AEKE and 100 AEKE, during the early Middle Etrandish period.

Southern Etrandish

  • Unlike in other dialects, /æː/ never diphthongized to /æi̯/, but instead got raised to /eː/. As a result, Some words in Current Southern Etrandish still have /eɪ̯/ instead of the Standard Etrandish /ɐɪ̯/.
  • While in other dialects, word-initial /g/ - which was originally pronounced as [ɣ] - hardened to [g], it debuccalized to [ɦ] in Southern Etrandish. As a result, Some words in Current Southern Etrandish still have /h/ instead of the Standard Etrandish /g/.
  • While in other dialects, /x/ debuccalized to [h], in Southern Old Etrandish, it remained a velar [x], and in fact hardened to [k] in the coda-position.
  • Coda-position /l/ was often written like /r/. Coda-position /l/ and /r/ may have merged as [ɹ] or [ɻ]. This dialectal feature did not survive into the Southern dialect of Middle Etrandish.
  • Heavier presence of loanwords from the Swamp Lizardman languages
    • To an extent, all varieties of Etrandish have loanwords from Lizardman, but mostly from Plains Lizardman
  • The Dermian language evolved from Southern Old Etrandish, heavily influenced by the Middle Neressan language

Inner Etrandish

  • /ng/ coalsced into /ŋ/ as early as 200 BEKE, while in other dialects, this happened between 0 and 300 AEKE, becoming standard by 300. This is evidenced by some inscriptions writing 「nn」, 「nm」, 「gn」 or 「nh」 instead of 「ng」.
  • There was an ongoing sprintalization of coda-position /k/ to [x] before the unification of Etrand. This feature did not survive into Middle Etrandish.

Northern Etrandish

This was the dialect spoken in the Kingdom of Steelhelm, and is the only variant of Old Etrandish with an extensive corpus.

  • The dialect had word-final devoicing of voiced stops. The glide /u̯/ also became /f/ word-finally and before voiceless consonants.
  • Before the unification of Etrand, there was an ongoing shift of /æ æi̯/ to /e ei̯/, /ɑ ɑː/ to /æ æː/. Some archaic dialectal words and personal names still reflect this.
  • /er/ became /or/, rather than /ər/ in Northern Etrandish. This may be evidence for the uvular articulation of /r/ as [ʀ~ʁ] dating back to Old Etrandish times.
  • Heavy presence of loanwords from Old Dwarven and Classical Dwarven that were absent in every other variety of Etrandish