Old Etrandish

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Language: English
Old Etrandish
RegionEtrand
EthnicityHumans
Extinctevolved into Middle Etrandish around 0 BEKE/AEKE
Torgyrian
Early forms
Runic, Dwarven (Steelhelm only)
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Old Etrandish was the stage of the Etrandish language between 800 BEKE and 0 BEKE. It is important to note that neither Old Etrandish nor its successor Middle Etrandish were in no way a unified monolithic languages, but both had a variety of dialects.

Evolution from Proto-Human

Consonants

  • Proto-Human word-final /z/ became silent.
  • Rhotacism of Proto-Human /z/ to [ɹ] or [r̝].
  • Palatalization of /k ɣ g/ to [t͡ʃ ʝ d͡ʒ] before and after front vowels. This also blocked the word-initial hardening of /ɣe/ and /ɣi/ to [ge] and [gi], which became [ʝe] and [ʝi] instead. /nɣi/ and /nɣe/ (previously pronunced as [ŋgi] and [ŋge]) were palatalized to [nd͡ʒi] and [nd͡ʒe]. Word-initial /dʒ/ later also apeared from Wood Elven loanwords.
  • The voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ hardened to [g] word-initially, unless it was preceeding a front vowel, when it became a palatal fricative [ʝ] instead.
  • Complete shift of /sk/ to /ʃ/ in all environments, except in some compound words
    • /t͡sk/ became /sk/
  • Deaffication of Proto-Human /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ to /s/ and /z/
  • Shift of /x/ to /h/, /xʷ/ to /ʍ/
  • Shift of /ɸ/ and /β/ to /f/
  • Epenthetic insertion of stops after nasals before /r l/ (even if they are sllyabic)
    • /mr ml/ became /mbr mbl/
    • /nr nl/ became /ndr ndl/
  • Epenthetic insertion of stops after nasals before other syllabic consonants:
    • /nm̩/ became /ndm̩/
    • /mn̩/ became /mbn̩/

Vowels

  • Monophthongization:
    • /ɑi̯/ -> /ɑː/
    • /ɑu̯/ -> /oː/
    • /eu̯/ -> /øː/
    • /iu̯ ui̯/ -> /yː/
  • Proto-Human lax vowels [ɪ ʊ] lowered to /e o/ unless the following syllable had a corresponding non-lax vowel in it. For example, [sʊŋg] became /soŋg/, but [sʊngu] became /suŋgu/ (and eventually /suŋg/, because of the loss of word-final short vowels mentioned below)
  • Proto-Human /ɔː ɛː/ shifted to /oː æː/.
  • I-Umlaut: /o oː u uː/ fronted to /ø øː y yː/ if the following syllable had /i/ in it. The /i/ was then deleted.
  • U-umlaut: /e eː i iː/ rounded to /ø øː y yː/ if the following syllable had /u/ in it. The /u/ was then deleted.
  • A-Umlaut: /i iː y yː u uː/ lowered to /e eː ø øː o oː/ if the following syllable had /ɑ/. The /ɑ/ was then deleted.
  • A-fronting: /ɑ ɑː/ universally fronts to /æ æː/, unless it was /ɑː/ originating from Proto-Human /ɑi̯/, or the following syllable has a back vowel (/ɑ/ excluded). This shift happened after the A-Umlaut took place, as it did not block the umlaut.
  • Loss of word-final short vowels, shortening of word-final long vowels.

Grammar

  • Loss of grammatical genders for regular nouns, resulting in a simple singular-plural dichotomy.
    • The distinction between masculine, feminine and neuter is preserved in pronouns.
  • The Proto-Human accusative case falls out of use, only dative remaining.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain Sibilant Plain Labialized
Nasal Voiceless
Voiced m n (ŋ) (ŋʷ)
Stop Voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
Voiced b d d͡ʒ g
Fricative Voiceless f~v θ~ð s ʃ (ç) (x)
Voiced z ɣ~ʝ*
Approximant Voiceless ʍ h~ɦ
Voiced l j (lʲ~ʎ*) w
Trill Voiceless
Voiced r, r̝~ɹ* (rʲ*)
  • The existence of the palatal lateral /lʲ~ʎ/ and palatal rhotic /rʲ/ is questionable, and if they existed, they most likely existed only in the syllabic position (see below).
  • The Proto-Human /z/ was rhotacized in Old Etrandish. We do not know how the successor of /z/ was pronunced - either as an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or fricative trill [r̝] - but we do know that it was kept distinct from /r/ until 550 BEKE, when it finally merged with /r/.
  • The phoneme /h/ had a wide range of allophones - voiceless glottal approximant [h] word-initially, voiced glottal approximant [ɦ] between vowels, velar fricative [x] in syllable coda after back vowels, palatal fricative [ç] in syllable coda after front vowels.
  • The voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ had a palatal allophone [ʝ] early on before and after front vowels. Around 400 BEKE, [ʝ] merged with /j/ and [ɣ] with /w/, reintroducing diphthongs to native Etrandish vocabulary.
  • The voiced [v ð] were the medial allophones of /f θ/. /z/ was different, considering how it came from the deaffrication of the proto-Human /d͡z/ (the original proto-Human /z/ rhotacised to [ɹ] or [r̝], and eventually merged with /r/..
  • The voiceless sonorants [m̥ n̥ l̥ r̥ ʍ] were the allophones of /m n l r w/ after /h/. The Old Etrandish /hm hn hl hr hw/ clusters originated from the proto-Human /xm xn xl xr xʷ/.
  • The consonants /l r/ had velarized allophones [ɫ ɹ] before other consonants, but not word-finally or next to each other :the /rl lr/ clusters were realized as [rl lr], not as [ɹl ɫ]. Syllabic /l̩ r̩/ were never velarized, in fact, they may have been even palatalized [l̩ʲ r̩ʲ] or [ʎ̩ r̩ʲ], evidenced by their word-initial dissimilation to /li ri/ in Middle Etrandish.

Syllabic Consonants

With the phonemization of umlauts - caused by the lost vowels - and the rhotacism of proto-Human /z/ to /r/, Old Etrandish acquired syllabic consonants, namely /m̩ n̩ l̩ r̩/ and later /ŋ̩/ too (Late Old Etrandish was already in the process of coalscing /ng/ into /ŋ/, /n̩g/ to /ŋ̩/..

The syllabic /l̩ r̩/ may or may not have been palatalized [l̩ʲ r̩ʲ] or [ʎ̩ r̩ʲ], speculated because of their word-initial dissimilation to /li ri/ in Middle Etrandish. Some linguists believe that syllabic /n̩/ was also a palatalized [n̩ʲ] or [ɲ̩], based on the fact that it dissimilated to /ɛn/ in Middle Etrandish, as opposed to the /um ɔŋ/ from /m̩ ŋ̩/. Other linguists believe that the syllabic /n̩/ originally dissimilated to /ən/, then /ə/ became /ɛ/ everywhere except before /r/, leaving /ɛn/ as the final result.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long
Short i y u
Mid Long øː
Short e ø o
Back Long æː* ɑː
Short æ ɑ

Around 150 BEKE, /æː/ diphthongized to /æi̯/ in the majority of Old Etrandish dialects.

Diphthongs

Around 400 BEKE, the early Old Etrandish voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ and its palatal allophone [ʝ] vocalized to /j/ or /w/, reintroducing diphthongs to native Etrandish vocabulary (previously Early Old Etrandish only had /ɑi̯/, /oi̯/ and /ui̯/ from Wood Elven loanwords).

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long yːi̯
Short yi̯ (ui̯)
Mid Long eːi̯ øːi̯ oːu̯
Short ei̯ øi̯ ou̯ (oi̯)
Back Long æːi̯ ɑːu̯
Short æi̯ ɑu̯ (ɑi̯)

Grammar

Old Etrandish was a subject-verb-object and synthetic language.

Nouns

Number Singular Plural
nominative - (-i)
genitive -n -(i)n
dative}}.ccusative -ǽm -rǽ

The various cases had the following functions:

  • The nominative case usually marks the subject of the sentence.
  • The genitive case marks ownership. For example, "Ætrandn Réct" means "(the) Kingdom of Etrand".
  • The dative case usualy marks indirect objects, similar to the use of English "to" and "for"

Pronouns

Person First Second Third
Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case}}.ender Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative æg ǽgé kæm
genitive mǽgá mǽgén fón fén hǽn sæná cæn sén
dative ágó ǽgér fóm sanó kǽm

Verbs

Simple Continuous
Past -yl -ilm
Present -ir -irgi
Future -eg -encg
  • The infinitive is marked by -iri, just like Present Simple.
  • Adding an extra -r at the end turns the verb perfect. An example:
    • "seffir" means "to make someone}}.omething beautiful". It is in Present Simple.
    • "seffeg" is the same verb, but in Future Simple instead. For example, "you will make her beautiful".
    • "seffegr" is the same verb, but in Future Perfect instead. For example, "you will have made her beautiful".

Adjectives

Adjectives have three forms in Old Etrandish:

  • Normal adjective: -en
  • Comparitive adjective: -æner
  • Superlative adjective: -æneg

Adverbs

Adverbs have three forms in Old Etrandish:

  • Normal adverb: -ætn
  • Comparitive adverb: -ærtn
  • Superlative adverb: -æng

Inclusive or vs Exclusive or

Old Etrandish distinguished between the "inclusive or" and the "exclusive or". The earlier means, "either A, B, or both of them", while the latter means "either A or B, but not both of them - never both of them".

  • The word for the inclusive or is 「zæ」
  • The word for the exclusive or is 「ho」

Numerical system

Proto-Human is said to have regressed from Proto-Elven in the numerical sysem. While the octal system was dropped altogether, adopting a purely hexadecimal system, the old and well-functioning postfix system was dropped, and replaced with unique names for all the powers of 16, making for a clumsier, less convenient, and overall more primitive system.

Numbers from 0 to 16

  • 0: mær
  • 1: æn
  • 2: fǽn
  • 3: wen
  • 4:
  • 5:
  • 6: thá
  • 7:
  • 8: step
  • 9: rón
  • 10: rófǽn
  • 11: rówen
  • 12: rórá
  • 13: rósá
  • 14: róthá
  • 15: rógá
  • 16: róstep

Numerical postfixes

  • 16 power 1: -(æ)p
    • Denotes the first power of 16. For example, "ænp-æn" means , or 0x11, or simply 17 in decimal.
    • Logic would suggest the number 16 - 0x10 in hexadecimal - be said as "anap" - but it is actually "róstep". This is a holdover from Proto-Elven.
  • 16 power 2: -(i)p
    • Denotes the second power of 16. For example, "ænip-æn" means , or 0x101, or simply 257 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "hundreds".
  • 16 power 3: -kwæt
    • Denotes the third power of 16. For example, "ænkwæt-æn" means , or 0x1001, or simply 4097 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "thousands".
  • 16 power 4: -ét
    • Denotes the fourth power of 16. For example, "ænét-æn" means , or 0x10001, or simply 65537 in decimal.
  • 16 power 5: -kwét
    • Denotes the fifth power of 16. For example, "ænkwét-æn" means , or 0x100001, or simply 1048577 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "millions".
  • negative: -n(i)l
    • Used to postfix a negative number. For example, "æn" means 1, while "ænnl" means -1.
  • Ordinator: -(i)r
    • Turns a cardinal number into an ordinal number. For example, "æn" means "one", while "ænir" means "first".
  • Radix point: fir
    • Literally means "full", it separates the integral part of a number from the fractional part. For example, "æn fir róstep" means 0x1.F, equivalent to the decimal 1.9375.

Vocabulary

Work under progress