Middle Orcish language

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Language: English
Middle Orcish
RegionBrutang
EthnicityOrcs
Extinctevolved into Current Orcish some time around 300 AEKE
Torgyrian
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Middle Orcish was the language of the Orcish Kingdom in its days of decline, as well as shortly after its collapse. It evolved from Early Orcish.

Evolution from Early Orcish

  • /ɨ/ becomes silent, /ɨː/ merges with /iː/
  • /a/ becomes silent when between a word-initial non-nasal consonant and a rhotic consonant. For example, the word-initial /saʀ/ becomes /sʀ/ (which further becomes /χʀ~ʀ̥/.
  • /u/ becomes silent between any non-rhotic and non-nasal consonant and /w/, creating new clusters such as /pw/, /bw/, /tw/, /dw/, /sw/, /zw/, /t͡ɕw/, /d͡ʑw/, /ɕw/, /ʑw/, /kw/, /gw/, /qw/ and /ɢw/
    • The last four of them become completely new phonemes: /kʷ gʷ qʷ ɢʷ/
  • The so called "echo vowels" are deleted - for example, /pirʲidu/ becomes /prʲidu/, /qaʀati/ becomes /qʀati/, etc.
  • Word-final short vowels are deleted too, turning the earlier /prʲidu/ into /prʲid/. Word-final long vowels are shortened.
  • The palatalized alveolar trill /rʲ/ becomes a retroflex flap /ɽ/
  • The word-initial /sʀ/ cluster - which itself was caused by deletion of several vowels - becomes /χʀ~ʀ̥/
  • /a aː/ develops into /ɒ ɒː/ after /q qʷ ɢ ɢʷ ʀ/, /æ æː/ everywhere else

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n, ⁿd (ɲ) (ŋ) (ɴ)
Stop Voiceless p t t͡ʃ k kʷ q qʷ
Voiced b d d͡ʒ g gʷ ɢ ɢʷ
Fricative Voiceless s ʃ (χ)
Voiced z ʒ
Sonorant ɽ l j w ʀ (ʀ̥)
  • The coda nasal /n/ had the following allophones
    • labial [m] before /p b/
    • alveolar [n] before /t d s z ɽ/
    • palatal [ɲ] before /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ j/
    • velar [ŋ] before /k g w/
    • uvular [ɴ] before /q ɢ ʀ/
  • Both [ʀ̥] and [χ] only exist as parts of the word-initial cluster /χʀ/, which developed from an earlier /sʀ/.

Vowels

Front Back
Close i iː u uː
Open æ æː ɒ ɒː

The language also has four diphthongs: /æi æu ɒi ɒu/.