Middle Orcish language
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|Extinct||evolved into Current Orcish some time around 300 AEKE|
Evolution from Early Orcish
- /ɨ/ becomes silent, /ɨː/ merges with /iː/
- /a/ becomes silent when between a word-initial non-nasal consonant and a rhotic consonant. For example, the word-initial /saʀ/ becomes /sʀ/ (which further becomes /χʀ~ʀ̥/.
- /u/ becomes silent between any non-rhotic and non-nasal consonant and /w/, creating new clusters such as /pw/, /bw/, /tw/, /dw/, /sw/, /zw/, /t͡ɕw/, /d͡ʑw/, /ɕw/, /ʑw/, /kw/, /gw/, /qw/ and /ɢw/
- The last four of them become completely new phonemes: /kʷ gʷ qʷ ɢʷ/
- The so called "echo vowels" are deleted - for example, /pirʲidu/ becomes /prʲidu/, /qaʀati/ becomes /qʀati/, etc.
- Word-final short vowels are deleted too, turning the earlier /prʲidu/ into /prʲid/. Word-final long vowels are shortened.
- The palatalized alveolar trill /rʲ/ becomes a retroflex flap /ɽ/
- The word-initial /sʀ/ cluster - which itself was caused by deletion of several vowels - becomes /χʀ~ʀ̥/
- /a aː/ develops into /ɒ ɒː/ after /q qʷ ɢ ɢʷ ʀ/, /æ æː/ everywhere else
|Stop||Voiceless||p||t||t͡ʃ||k kʷ||q qʷ|
|Voiced||b||d||d͡ʒ||g gʷ||ɢ ɢʷ|
|Sonorant||ɽ l||j||w||ʀ (ʀ̥)|
- The coda nasal /n/ had the following allophones
- labial [m] before /p b/
- alveolar [n] before /t d s z ɽ/
- palatal [ɲ] before /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ j/
- velar [ŋ] before /k g w/
- uvular [ɴ] before /q ɢ ʀ/
- Both [ʀ̥] and [χ] only exist as parts of the word-initial cluster /χʀ/, which developed from an earlier /sʀ/.
|Close||i iː||u uː|
|Open||æ æː||ɒ ɒː|
The language also has four diphthongs: /æi æu ɒi ɒu/.