Late Hulran language

From Ways of Darkness
Jump to: navigation, search
Language: English
Late Hulran
RegionHulra, later Etrancoast
EthnicityHumans
Extinctevolved into Etrancoasti some time after 274 AEKE, probably around 400 AEKE
an offshot language named Gaviúran language also emerged
Early forms
Runic
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Late Hulran was the final stage during the independent evolution of the Hulran language. Spoken in the the Kingdom of Hulra during the end of its lifespan, it represented the last stage of the language that was still overwhelmingly free of foreign influences, ultimately the last Human language overwhelmingly free of external influences that post-date the evolution from Proto-Elven to Proto-Human.

After the fall of Hulra in 274, the language came under Etrandish influence, which meant that thousands of words from Middle Etrandish and Eccelestial High Elven (and Middle High Elven indirectly via Middle Etrandish) entered the Hulran / Etrancoasti language, accelerating the shift from Late Hulran to Current Etrancoasti.

Evolution from Classical Hulran

Consonants

  • Phonemic distinction between voiceless /f θ/ and voiced fricatives /v ð/ emerges
    • The voiced fricatives /v ð ɣ/ become closer to approximants in articulation
  • Voiced stops and fricatives got devoiced word-finally
  • Second Rhotacism: /z/ and /ʑ/ to /r/
  • Voicing distinction between stops is replaced with aspiration distinction
    • Voiceless stops /p t t͡ɕ k kʷ/ become aspirated /pʰ tʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ/ (except in the syllable coda, where they became unreleased)
    • Formerly voiced stops /b d d͡ʑ/ became unaspirated /p t t͡ʃ/, realized as voiceless [p t t͡ʃ] word-initially, voiced [b d d͡ʒ] medially.
  • The alveolo-palatal /tɕ dʑ ɕ/ became palato-alveolar [t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ ʃ]
  • Geminated consonants lost their gemination word-finally

Vowels

  • /æ æː/ became /e ɛː/
  • /ɒ ɒː/ became /o ɔː/
  • The short /u/ became /o/, /ui̯/ became /oi̯/
  • Length distinction was replaced by tenseness distinction for close vowels:
    • the short /i y/ became laxed /ɪ ʏ/
    • The long /iː yː/ became tense /i y/, realized as long [iː yː] in open syllables (except word-finally), short otherwise.
  • The lowering diphthongs /ie̯ uo̯/ became centralizing /iə̯ uə̯/

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plain Labial
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop Aspirated t͡ʃʰ kʷʰ
Plain p~b t~d t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ (k~g) (kʷ~gʷ)
Fricative Voiceless f θ s ʃ h~x
Voiced v~ʋ ð ɣ~ɰ
Approximant l j w
Flap / Trill r~ɾ
  • The unaspirated /k~g/ and /kʷ~gʷ/ appeared only in loanwords.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front Central Back
Close Tense i~iː y~yː (u~uː)
Lax ɪ ʏ (ʊ)
Mid Long eː ɛː øː oː ɔː
Short e ø ə o
Open ɑ
  • The main distinction between the tense /i y/ and the lax /ɪ ʏ/ was vowel quality, not length
    • The tense vowels /i y/ were pronounced as long [iː yː] in open syllables (except word-finally), short [i y] otherwise.
    • Lax vowels never occurred word-finally. Word-final close vowels were always tense.
  • The vowels /ʊ/ and /u/ were only found in foreign words, and weren't distinguished from /o/ and /y/ in writing.
    • Most likely, they also were pronounced as such. /ʊ/ as [o̞], /u/ as [y~yː].
  • The long vowel /eː/ and the diphthong /ei̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.
  • The long vowel /oː/ and the diphthong /ou̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.

Diphthongs

Fronted Centralized Backed
iə̯ uə̯ iu̯
ei̯ oi̯ ou̯
  • The long vowel /eː/ and the diphthong /ei̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.
  • The long vowel /oː/ and the diphthong /ou̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.

Grammar

Late Hulran was a subject-verb-object and synthetic language.

Nouns

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative -(a)r -a -(a)m -(i)
genitive -án -enei -(a)n -(i)n
dative -anou -ám -ré
accusative -ánó -(a)nei -(a)nám -(i)rné

The various cases had the following functions:

  • The nominative case usually marks the subject of the sentence.
  • The genitive case marks ownership. For example, "Hoelrán Réktr" means "(the) Kingdom of Hulra".
  • The dative case usualy marks indirect objects, similar to the use of English "to" and "for"
  • the accusative case usually marks direct objects, ones that are being directly targeted.

Pronouns

Person First Second Third
Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative ágr ágie foer fie har sa kam sie
genitive mégei mágén foen fien hán senei kan sien
dative ágoe ágier foem fje hoe sanou kám sje
accusative égnoe ágein foenám fein hánó sanei kanám sein

Verbs

Simple Continuous
Past -yl -(i)lme
Present -(i)ri -(i)rgí
Future -eg -engi
  • The infinitive is marked by -(i)ri, just like Present Simple.
  • Adding an extra -r at the end turns the verb perfect. An example:
    • "seffiri" means "to make someone / omething beautiful". It is in Present Simple.
    • "seffeg" is the same verb, but in Future Simple instead. For example, "you will make her beautiful".
    • "seffegr" is the same verb, but in Future Perfect instead. For example, "you will have made her beautiful".

Adjectives

Adjectives have three forms in Late Hulran:

  • Normal adjective: -en
  • Comparitive adjective: -enri
  • Superlative adjective: -aneg

Adverbs

Adverbs have three forms in Late Hulran:

  • Normal adverb: -atn
  • Comparitive adverb: -artn
  • Superlative adverb: -ang

Inclusive or vs Exclusive or

Late Hulran - and by extension, all of its descendant languages - distinguish between the "inclusive or" and the "exclusive or". The earlier means, "either A, B, or both of them", while the latter means "either A or B, but not both of them - never both of them".

  • The word for the inclusive or is 「ran」
  • The word for the exclusive or is 「hoe」

Numerical system

Numbers from 0 to 16

  • 0: mar
  • 1: an
  • 2: fán
  • 3: wen
  • 4: rei
  • 5: sei
  • 6: dei
  • 7: gei
  • 8: step
  • 9: roun
  • 10: roufán
  • 11: rouwen
  • 12: rourei
  • 13: rauthei
  • 14: roudei
  • 15: rougei
  • 16: roustep

Numerical postfixes

  • 16 power 1: -(a)p
    • Denotes the first power of 16. For example, "anp-an" means , or 0x11, or simply 17 in decimal.
    • Logic would suggest the number 16 - 0x10 in hexadecimal - be said as "anp" - but it is actually "roustep". This is a holdover from Proto-Elven.
  • 16 power 2: -(i)p
    • Denotes the second power of 16. For example, "enp-an" means , or 0x101, or simply 257 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "hundreds".
  • 16 power 3: -kwat
    • Denotes the third power of 16. For example, "ankwat-an" means , or 0x1001, or simply 4097 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "thousands".
  • 16 power 4: -iet
    • Denotes the fourth power of 16. For example, "aniet-an" means , or 0x10001, or simply 65537 in decimal.
  • 16 power 5: -kwét
    • Denotes the fifth power of 16. For example, "ankwét-an" means , or 0x100001, or simply 1048577 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "millions".
  • negative: -n(i)l
    • Used to postfix a negative number. For example, "an" means 1, while "ennl" means -1.
  • Ordinator: -(i)r
    • Turns a cardinal number into an ordinal number. For example, "an" means "one", while "enr" means "first".
  • Radix point: wir
    • Literally means "full", it separates the integral part of a number from the fractional part. For example, "an wir roustep" means 0x1.F, equivalent to the decimal 1.9375.