Keldorni Etrandish

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Language: English
Keldorni Etrandish
RegionKeldorn
Ethnicityvarious
Native speakers
259,000 (831)
259,000
Torgyrian
Early forms
High Elven
Language codes
ISO 639-3

The Keldorni Etrandish language is the main language of the Republic of Keldorn, split off from Middle Etrandish around 150 AEKE, heavily influenced by the Gabyrian language, and also slightly by the Keldorni Goblin language

Evolution and differences from Middle Etrandish

Vowels

  • The short /i y u/ never laxed to [ɪ ʏ ʊ], remaining [i y u]
  • The diphthongs /ɐi̯ ɐu̯/ remained [ɐi̯ ɐu̯] before /l r/, while they monophthongized to [ɛː ɔː] in mainstream Middle Etrandish around 350 AEKE. Hence, [ɛː] does not appear in Keldorni Etrandish.
  • The open-mid vowels /ɛ œ ɔ/ got raised to [e̞ ø̞ o̞].
  • The schwa /ə/ got merged with /ø/.
  • /ɔu̯/ merged with /oː/

Consonants

  • Keldorni Etrandish preserved the distinction between the voiced [w] and voiceless [ʍ], the voiced [r~ɾ~ɹ] and voiceless [r̥].
  • The voiced fricative /z/ got affricated to /d͡z/ everywhere but in postvocalic environments.
  • While in Etrand Etrandish, voiceless stops became aspirated and modally voiced stops became slack-voiced (everywhere but medially, where they remaiend fully voiced), in Keldorni Etrandish, voiceless stops remained unaspirated and modally voiced stops remained fully voiced.
  • Keldorni Etrandish has developed a postvocalic and post-sonorant lention of /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ to [β ð ʒ ɣ ɣʷ].
    • The original /ð/ remained unchanged, pronounced as [ð].
  • /v/ and /w/ has merged into a new [ʋ]. Previous /ʍ/ has also shifted to [ʋ̥].
    • Also important to note that even though consonantal stand-alone /w/ no longer exists in Keldorn Etrandish, [kʷ] and [gʷ~ɣʷ] still do, along with the diphthong [ɐu̯].

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Palatal Velar
Plain Sibilant Plain Labialized
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop Voiceless p t t͡s t͡ʃ k
Voiced b~β d~ð d͡z~z d͡ʒ~ʒ g~ɣ gʷ~ɣʷ
Fricative f θ ð s ʃ h~x~ç
Approximant ʋ̥ ʋ l j (ʎ)
Rhotic r* r̥*
  • /r/ is pronounced differently depending on the environment:
    • Trilled [r] word-initially and when geminated.
    • Flapped [ɾ] between two vowels, and after consonants
    • Approximant [ɹ] in the syllable coda.
  • Voiced stops are always fully voiced, except before a voiceless sound, where they either become slack-voiced, or completely devoiced.
    • The voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡z d͡ʒ g gʷ/ are lenited to [β ð z ʒ ɣ ɣʷ] after vowels and after the consonants /l r/. The only exception to this is /ld/, which remains [ld].
    • It is important to note that /ð/ also exists as a phoneme on its own, always pronounced as [ð].
  • Voiceless stops are unaspirated. Word-initially, they may be slightly aspirated.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long
Short i y u
Mid Long øː
Short ø̞
Open Long (æː) aː (ɔː)
Short (æ) ɑ (ɒ)
  • [ɒ ɔː] exist only as allophones of /ɑ aː/ before /l r/.
  • [æ æː] exists only as the allophone of /e eː/ before /l r k ŋ/.

Diphthongs

Fronted Backed
Close ui̯
Mid ei̯ øi̯ oi̯
Open ɐi̯ ɐu̯