|~4 600 000 (831)|
The Etrandish language is a Human language first spoken in the territories that would become the Kingdom of Etrand by 0 BEKE/AEKE. It reached it's currently recognizable and intelligible form roughly around 600 AEKE, but changes are still ongoing.
Evolution from Middle Etrandish
- See also: Etrandish phonology
- The voiceless stops and affricates /p t t͡s t͡ʃ k kʷ/ became aspirated [pʰ tʰ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ]
- Modally voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ partially lost their voicing word-initially and word-finally, becoming slack-voiced (completely devoiced in northern dialects)
- In uneducated speech, coda-position nasals /m n ŋ/ merged into a new phoneme /ɴ/ at the ends of words
- In all dialects but Standard Etrandish, the voiceless /ʍ/ merges with the voiced /w/
- The laxing of short /i y u/ to [ɪ ʏ ʊ] has become fully accepted as standard and spread to diphthongs too.
- /ui̯/, /ɛi̯/, /ɐi̯/, /ɔu̯/ and /ɐu̯/ shifted to [ʊɪ̯], [eɪ̯], [ɐɪ̯], [oʊ̯] and [ɐʊ̯].
- /øː/ and /øi̯/ merged as [øʏ̯]
- Diphthongization of long close-mid vowels:
- /eː/ and /oː/ diphthongized to [eɪ̯] and [oʊ̯]
- /øː/ and /œi̯/ merged as [øʏ̯]
- The long open-mid vowels /ɛː ɔː/ remained unchanged
- Shift of /ɒːl/ to /ɔːl/
- The cluster /ɒlk/ became /ɔːk/
- /ɒl/ also became /ɔl/ before the consonants /n t d/.
- Shift of /ɒːr/ to /ɔːr/, eliminating historical distinction with /ɐu̯r/ (which shifted to /ɔːr/ 400 years before)
- /ɒr/ remained unchanged
- Merger of /ɪr ʏr ʊr/ to /ər/ in all except the Northern dialects
- The dative case for nouns and pronouns alike completely falls out of use.
- For regular nouns (not pronouns), the genitive case also falls out of use - replaced by the preposition "ven" -, except in formal speech and certain phrases, like "Etranden Réct" (Kingdom of Etrand).
- See also: Etrandish phonology
The various cases had the following functions:
- The nominative case historically marked the subject of the sentence, but now that cases have fallen out of use, it is safer to assume that nominative can mark anything, if the correct preposition is used before the said word.
- The genitive case - which has largerly fallen out of use, replaced by the preposition "ven" - marks ownership. For example, "Etranden Réct" means "(the) Kingdom of Etrand". "Réct ven Etrand" also means "Kingdom of Etrand".
The dative case of Middle Etrandish has completely fallen out of use, even in formal speech. The genitive case - for regular nouns, that is - is preserved only in formal speech, especially written documents.
|Case / Gender||Masculine||Feminine||Neuter|
- While the genitive case has largely fallen out of use for regular nouns, it is still preferred and mandatory for pronouns. For example, "Réct ven Ai" is not valid. Only "mae Réct" (my Kingdom).
- The infinitive is marked by -ir, just like Present Simple.
- Adding an extra -(e)r at the end turns the verb perfect. An example:
- "seffir" means "to make someone}}.omething beautiful". It is in Present Simple.
- "seffei" is the same verb, but in Future Simple instead. For example, "you will make her beautiful".
- "seffeier" is the same verb, but in Future Perfect instead. For example, "you will have made her beautiful".
- For passive voice, the prefix "á" is added to the beginning of a verb. For example, "wisenghir" means "to sacrifice" - "áwisenghir" means "to be sacrificed".
Adjectives have three forms in Etrandish:
- Normal adjective: -en
- Comparitive adjective: -ener
- Superlative adjective: -enei
Adverbs have three forms in Etrandish:
- Normal adverb: -eten
- Comparitive adverb: -arten
- Superlative adverb: -eng
Inclusive or vs Exclusive or
Etrandish distinguishes between the "inclusive or" and the "exclusive or". The earlier means, "either A, B, or both of them", while the latter means "either A or B, but not both of them - never both of them".
- The word for the inclusive or is 「ze」
- The word for the exclusive or is 「ho」
In casual speech, the distinction between the inclusive or and exclusive or has grown blurred, with the majority of speakers using the two interchangeably in informal speech. In formal speech - and written text - however, it becomes mandatory to make a distinction and use them correctly.
- ves: that
- vaer: this
- vit: the (definite article)
- kyl: for