Early Orcish language

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Language: English
Early Orcish
RegionBrutang
EthnicityOrcs
Extinctevolved into Middle Orcish some time around 100 BEKE
Torgyrian
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Early Orcish was the language of the Orcish Kingdom in its heyday. It evolved from Archaic Wood Elven.

Evolution from Archaic Wood Elven

Vowels

  • The original 7-vowel system was replaced by a 4-vowel system:
    • /e i/ - > /i/
    • /o u/ -> /u/
    • /ə/ -> /ɨ/
    • /a/ remains /a/
  • Three of the ten original diphthongs become long vowels:
    • /ei/ -> /iː/
    • /ou/ -> /uː/
    • /əi əu/ -> /ɨː/
    • /aə/ -> /aː/

Consonants

  • /kʷ gʷ/ -> /q ɢ/
  • /kʲ gʲ/ and /t͡s d͡z/ merge into /t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/
  • /r/ dissimilates
    • /r/ before back vowels becomes /ʀ/
    • /r/ before front vowels and /j/ becomes /rʲ/
  • The retroflex nasal flap /ɽ̃/ became a prenasalized alveolar stop [ⁿd]

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal /m/ /n/, /ⁿd/ [ɲ] [ŋ] [ɴ]
Stop Voiceless /p/ /t/ /t͡ɕ/ /k/ /q/
Voiced /b/ /d/ /d͡ʑ/ /g/ /ɢ/
Fricative Voiceless /s/ /ɕ/
Voiced /z/ /ʑ/
Sonorant /rʲ/, /l/ /j/ /w/ /ʀ/
  • The coda nasal /n/ had the following allophones
    • labial [m] before /p b/
    • alveolar [n] before /t d s z rʲ/
    • palatal [ɲ] before /t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ j/
    • velar [ŋ] before /k g w/
    • uvular [ɴ] before /q ɢ ʀ/

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i iː ɨ ɨː u uː
Open a aː

The language also has two diphthongs: /ai/ and /au/.