Common Continental Lizardman language

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Language: English
Common Continental Lizardman
Ká Yü` Jai
Pronunciation[kʰa˥˩ jyʔ ɖ͡ʐai̯]
RegionAncient Lizardman Empire and various successor-states
EthnicityLizardmen
Extinctsplit into various Continental Lizardman languages after 2000-1500 BEKE
Lizardman
  • Common Continental Lizardman
Lizardman cuneiforms
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Common Continental Lizardman was the transitional proto-language between Late Classical Lizardman and the Continental Lizardman languages, spoken in the last millenium of the Ancient Lizardman Empire's existence and following two millenia.

Evolution from Late Classical Lizardman

  • The coda-position consonants [p̚ t̚ k̚] merge into a glottal stop /ʔ/.
  • /ɥ/ merges with /j/.
  • The voiceless unaspirated and voiced consonants become allophonic with each other - they merge with each other.
  • The palato-alveolar sibilants /t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ ʃ/ and retroflex stops /ʈʰ ʈ/ merge into one retroflex sibilant series /ʈ͡ʂʰ ʈ͡ʂ ʂ/.
  • The initial /ŋ/ disappears.
  • The initials /ɱ/, /v/ and /w/ merge into /ʋ/.
  • The final /m/ merges into /n/.
  • /ɣ/ is devoiced to /x/.
  • The clusters /kʰw kw xw/ coalesce into new labio-velar stops /kʷʰ kʷ xʷ/.
  • /i/ becomes a new vowel, /ɨ/ after the alveolar sibilants /t͡sʰ t͡s s/ and retroflex consonants /ʈ͡ʂʰ ʈ͡ʂ ʂ ɻ/.
  • Various vowel mergers and shifts:
    • /əɻ/, /øɻ/ and /ɨɻ/ into /ɻ̩/
    • /eɻ/ and /ɛɻ/ merge into /ɛɻ/
    • /aɻ/ and /ɒɻ/ merge into /ɒɻ/
    • /əʔ/ and /ɨʔ/ merge into /ɨʔ/
    • /ɨn/ and /ən/ merge into /ən/
    • /ɨŋ/ and /əŋ/ merge into /əŋ/
    • /ɨ˩˥/ and /ə˩˥/ merge into /ɨ˩˥/
    • /ɨ˥˩/ and /ə˥˩/ merge into /ɨ˥˩/
    • /ɨu̯/ becomes /u/, reintroducing that vowel in open syllables
    • /iu̯/ becomes /y/, reintroducing that vowel in open syllables

Phonotactics

  • An optional initial
  • An optional glide /j/ (only after a null initial, or non-approximant labial initials)
  • A mandatory vowel
  • An optional coda-position glottal stop or tone

Initials

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Dorsal
Plain Sibilant Plain Labialized
Nasal /m/ /n/
Stop Fortis /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /t͡sʰ/ /ʈ͡ʂʰ/ /kʰ/ /kʷʰ/
Lenis /p/ /t/ /t͡s/ /ʈ͡ʂ/ /k/ /kʷ/
Fricative /f/ /s/ /ʂ/ /x/ /xʷ/
Approximant /ʋ/ /l/ /ɻ/ /j/
Rhotic /ʁ/
  • The lenis initials /p t t͡s ʈ͡ʂ k kʷ/ had voiced allophones [b d d͡z ɖ͡ʐ g gʷ] medially.

Finals

- j w n ŋ ʔ ◌˩˥ ◌˥˩ ɻ
a ai̯ au̯ an a˩˥ a˥˩ -
ɒ ɒi̯ ɒu̯ ɒn ɒŋ ɒʔ ɒ˩˥ ɒ˥˩ ɒɻ
ɛ ɛi̯ ɛu̯ ɛn ɛŋ ɛʔ ɛ˩˥ ɛ˥˩ ɛɻ
e ei̯ eu̯ en e˩˥ e˥˩ -
ə - - ən əŋ - - - ɻ̩
o oi̯ ou̯ - o˩˥ o˥˩ -
ø øy̯ øm øŋ øʔ ø˩˥ ø˥˩ -
i - - in i˩˥ i˥˩
ɨ - - - - ɨʔ ɨ˩˥ ɨ˥˩ -
u - - - u˩˥ u˥˩ -
y - - yn y˩˥ y˥˩