Ways of Darkness
Ways of Darkness
avatar Log in

Classical Hulran language

From Ways of Darkness
Language: English
Classical Hulran
RegionHulra
EthnicityHumans
Extinctevolved into Late Hulran around 200 BEKE
Torgyrian
Early forms
Runic
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Classical Hulran was the language of the Kingdom of Hulra from 800 BEKE to 200 BEKE.

Unlike it's western cousin, Classical Hulran became a truly literate written language, with a flourishing literate culture centred around it - many poems that are still recited to this day.

Even though Hulra is no more, and it's indirect successor Etrancost tries its best to suppress the pagan heritage, the literature from the time in which Classical Hulran was spoken is still influental, and even poets and writers from Etrand often try to emulate it.

During the transition period between Classical Hulran and Late Hulran, the language suffered from diglossia, mainly deriving from pronunciation differences and the loss of vowel length distinction in the successor.

Evolution from Proto-Human

Consonants

  • Rhotacism: proto-Human /z/ merges with /r/
    • The voiced /z/ is re-introduced via intervocalic voicing of /s/
  • Palatalization:
    • /t͡s d͡z/ become /t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/ before front vowels, deaffricate otherwise.
    • /t d s z/ become /t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ/ before /j/
  • /t͡s d͡z/ deaffricate to /θ d/, unless they are preceded word-initial or are preceded by velar consonants: in that case, they deaffricate to /s z/.
  • Loss of Proto-Human fricative voicing distinctions:
    • /ɸ/ and /β/ merge into /f/, realized as [f~v]
    • /θ/ and /ð/ merge into /θ/, realized as [θ~ð]
  • /ng/ becomes /ŋː/, /gː/ devoices to /kː/, eliminating [g] altogether from native vocabulary
    • /ngʷ/ becomes /mb/ instead
    • /ɣʷ/ merges with /w/
  • Proto-Human /x/ becomes /h/, except when geminated or in coda position.
    • /xm xn xl xr xw/ become /m̥ n̥ l̥ r̥ ʍ/
  • Gemination of nasals when preceeding syllabic consonants, unless they are preceeded by long vowels
    • /mn̩ mr̩ ml̩/ became /mːn̩ mːr̩ mːl̩/
    • /nm̩ nr̩ nl̩/ became /nːm nːr̩ nːl̩/
  • /nl/ becomes /lː/
  • Epenthetic insertion of stop consonants after nasals when they precede non-syllabic /r l/
    • /mr ml/ become /mbr mbl/
    • /nr/ becomes /ndr/ /nl/ becomes /lː/ instead)

Vowels

  • The vowel clusters /iɑ iɔː iu iuː ie ieː iɛː/ become gliding diphthongs /jɑ jɔː ju juː je jeː jɛː/
  • The lax vowels /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ got tensed to /i/ and /u/
  • Diphthongization of /eː/ and /ɔː/ to /ie̯/ and /uo̯/
  • /ɑi̯ ɑu̯/ > /ei̯ ou̯/
  • A-umlaut: /i iː u uː/ became /e eː o oː/ when the next syllable had /ɑ/ in it
    • Diphthongs were not affected
  • I-umlaut: /ɑ ɑː u/ become /e eː y/ when the next syllable had /i/ in it
    • /uː/ shifted to /yː/ in all environments (except when effected by the A-umlaut)
    • Diphthongs were not affected
  • /ɛː/ -> /eː/
  • U-umlaut: /e eː i iː/ became /ø øː y yː/ when the next syllable had /u/ in it
    • Diphthongs were not affected
  • Loss of word-final short vowels, shortening of word-final long vowels

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plain Labial
Nasal Voiceless
Voiced m n ŋ
Stop Voiceless p t t͡ɕ k
Voiced b d d͡ʑ (g)
Fricative Voiceless f~v θ~ð s~z ɕ~ʑ (x)
Voiced ɣ
Approximant / Rhotic Voiceless h~ɦ ʍ
Voiced l r j w

The voiced stop /g/ appeared only in loanwords, if at all.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front Back
Close Long
Short i y u
Mid Long øː
Short e ø o
Open Long (æː) ɑː (ɒː)
Short (æ) ɑ (ɒ)
  • The open vowel /ɑ ɑː/ had two additional allophones:
    • Rounded [ɒ ɒː] before /r/ and /l/
    • Fronted [æ æː] after /j/ and other palatal(ized) consonants
  • The long vowel /eː/ and the diphthong /ei̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.
  • The long vowel /oː/ and the diphthong /ou̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.

Diphthongs

Front Back
Fronted Backed Fronted Backed
Close ie̯ iu̯ ui̯ uo̯
Mid ei̯ eu̯ ou̯
  • The long vowel /eː/ and the diphthong /ei̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.
  • The long vowel /oː/ and the diphthong /ou̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.

Grammar

Classical Hulran was a subject-verb-object and synthetic language.

Nouns

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative -(a)r -a -(a)m -(i)
genitive -án -enei -(a)n -(i)n
dative -anou -ám -ré
accusative -ánó -(a)nei -(a)nám -(i)rné

The various cases had the following functions:

  • The nominative case usually marks the subject of the sentence.
  • The genitive case marks ownership. For example, "Huolrán Réktr" means "(the) Kingdom of Hulra".
  • The dative case usualy marks indirect objects, similar to the use of English "to" and "for"
  • the accusative case usually marks direct objects, ones that are being directly targeted.

Pronouns

Person First Second Third
Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative ágr ágie fuor fie har sa kam sie
genitive mégei mágén fuon fien hán senei kan sien
dative águo ágier fuom fya huo sanou kám sya
accusative égnuo ágein fuonám fein hánó sanei kanám sein

Verbs

Simple Continuous
Past -yl -(i)lme
Present -(i)ri -(i)rgí
Future -eg -engi
  • The infinitive is marked by -(i)ri, just like Present Simple.
  • Adding an extra -r at the end turns the verb perfect. An example:
    • "seffiri" means "to make someone}}.omething beautiful". It is in Present Simple.
    • "seffeg" is the same verb, but in Future Simple instead. For example, "you will make her beautiful".
    • "seffegr" is the same verb, but in Future Perfect instead. For example, "you will have made her beautiful".

Adjectives

Adjectives have three forms in Classical Hulran:

  • Normal adjective: -en
  • Comparitive adjective: -enri
  • Superlative adjective: -aneg

Adverbs

Adverbs have three forms in Classical Hulran:

  • Normal adverb: -atn
  • Comparitive adverb: -artn
  • Superlative adverb: -ang

Inclusive or vs Exclusive or

Classical Hulran - and by extension, all of its descendant languages - distinguish between the "inclusive or" and the "exclusive or". The earlier means, "either A, B, or both of them", while the latter means "either A or B, but not both of them - never both of them".

  • The word for the inclusive or is 「zan」
  • The word for the exclusive or is 「huo」

Numerical system

Numbers from 0 to 16

  • 0: mar
  • 1: an
  • 2: fán
  • 3: wen
  • 4: rei
  • 5: sei
  • 6: djei
  • 7: gei
  • 8: step
  • 9: roun
  • 10: roufán
  • 11: rouwen
  • 12: rourei
  • 13: rauthei
  • 14: roudjei
  • 15: rougei
  • 16: roustep

Numerical postfixes

  • 16 power 1: -(a)p
    • Denotes the first power of 16. For example, "anp-an" means , or 0x11, or simply 17 in decimal.
    • Logic would suggest the number 16 - 0x10 in hexadecimal - be said as "anp" - but it is actually "roustep". This is a holdover from Proto-Elven.
  • 16 power 2: -(i)p
    • Denotes the second power of 16. For example, "enp-an" means , or 0x101, or simply 257 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "hundreds".
  • 16 power 3: -kwat
    • Denotes the third power of 16. For example, "ankwat-an" means , or 0x1001, or simply 4097 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "thousands".
  • 16 power 4: -iet
    • Denotes the fourth power of 16. For example, "aniet-an" means , or 0x10001, or simply 65537 in decimal.
  • 16 power 5: -kwét
    • Denotes the fifth power of 16. For example, "ankwét-an" means , or 0x100001, or simply 1048577 in decimal.
    • When used as a noun - especially plural, and especially in casual usage - the word can also be used as an equivalent of "millions".
  • negative: -n(i)l
    • Used to postfix a negative number. For example, "an" means 1, while "ennl" means -1.
  • Ordinator: -(i)r
    • Turns a cardinal number into an ordinal number. For example, "an" means "one", while "enr" means "first".
  • Radix point: wir
    • Literally means "full", it separates the integral part of a number from the fractional part. For example, "an wir roustep" means 0x1.F, equivalent to the decimal 1.9375.