Ways of Darkness
Ways of Darkness
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Aeséni language

From Ways of Darkness
Language: English
Aeséni
Regionvarious mountainous regions of Continental Artograch
EthnicityAeséni
Native speakers
unknown, probably a few thousands (831)
no written form, oral language
Language codes
ISO 639-3

The Aeséni language is the language of the Aeséni people. It is an agglutinative language with an flexible word-order, although SVO is preferred.

Phonology

Phonotactics

The tolerated syllable types of Aeséni are /V/, /CV/, /VC/, /CVC/, where /V/ can be either a monophthong or a diphthong. The only exception to the ban on syllable-initial consonant-clusters is the consonant cluster /kw/, which can also occour word-initially or syllable-initially. Syllable-final consonant clusters are completely forbidden. Other than /kw/, all consonant-clusters must be medial and intervocalic, that is, following a vowel and followed by a vowel. With the exception of /Ckw/ clusters, all consonant clusters can only consist of two consonants.

The Aeséni language employs a rule which states, that when a /VC/ or /CVC/ syllable is followed by a /V/ or /VC/ syllable, the ending consonant of the first syllable migrates to the beginning of the first syllab, converting /VC.V VC.VC CVC.V CVC.VC/ into /V.CV V.CVC CV.CV CV.CVC/ respectively. Syllable-final consonants /p t c k/ also go through lenition to /w ɾ j ɣ/ when migrating to the beginning of the next syllable.

Consonants

Labial Dental Palatal Velar
Nasal <m> /m/ <n> /n/ <ň> /ɲ/ <ń> /ŋ/
Stop <p> /p/ <t> /t/ <ť> /c/ <k> /k/
Fricative <f> /ɸ/ <s> /s/ <š> /ɕ/ <h> /x/
Liquid <w> /w/ <r> /ɾ~r*/, <l> /l/ <y> /j/ <g> /ɣ~ɰ*/
  • With the exception of /ɣ/, all consonants can be geminated.
  • With the exception of /ɣ/, all of the liquids are phonemes on their own. /ɣ/ on the other hand is merely an allophone of morpheme-final /k/ before a morpheme that begins with a vowel.
  • Morpheme-finally, the stops /p t c k/ soften to /w ɾ j ɣ/ if the following morpheme begins with a vowel. This only happens if the aforementioned consonant is not geminated.
  • The realization of the liquids /w l j ɣ/ vary between fricatives [β̝ ɮ ʝ ɣ] and approximants [β̞ l j ɰ], although they tend to lean towards approximant. /w j/ respectively can be also pronounced as vocoids [ʊ̯ ɪ̯], especially when in coda-position and not followed by a vowel.
  • The single, ungeminated /ɾ/ varies between flap [ɾ] and (single-period) trill [r̆], albeit the flap is preferred. The geminated /ɾː/ is always realized as a multi-period trill [rː].

Vowels

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close Long <ii> /iː/ <üü> /yː/ <ïï> /ɯː/ <uu> /uː/
Short <i> /i/ <ü> /y/ <ï> /ɯ/ <u> /u/
Mid Long <ee> /eː/ <öö> /øː/ <ëë> /ɤː/ <oo> /oː/
Short <e> /e/ <ö> /ø/ <ë> /ɤ/ <o> /o/
Open Long <ää> /æː/ <aa> /ɒː/
Short <ä> /æ/ <a> /ɒ/
  • The front rounded and back unrounded vowels /ø øː y yː ɤ ɤː ɯ ɯː/ are somewhat centralized [ø̞̈ ø̈ː ʏ̈ ÿː ɤ̞̈ ɤ̈ː ɯ̞̈ ɯ̈ː]
  • The short close vowels /i y ɯ u/ are actually near-close [ɪ ʏ̈ ɯ̞̈ ʊ], while the long close vowels /iː yː ɯː uː/ are truly close [iː ÿː ɯ̈ː uː].
  • The short mid vowels /e ø ɤ o/ are truly mid [e̞ ø̞̈ ɤ̞̈ o̞], while the long mid vowels /eː øː ɤː oː/ are close-mid [eː ø̈ː ɤ̈ː oː]
  • The short open vowels /æ ɒ/ are somewhat centralized [æ̈ ɒ̈], while their long counterparts /æː ɒː/ are pure front/back [æː ɒː].

Grammar

Vowel harmony

Each word can have only front or back vowels, not both of them. When putting simple words together to form longer words, the latest root word's vowel class defines the whole word - all the previous root words progressively assimilate to it. Conjugations regressively assimilate instead.

For example:

/lɤnɒt/ + /iː/ = /lenæɾiː/
(the name of a mountain) "clan of" Lenärí tribe / Tribe of the Lënat Mountain

A more complex example:

/moːt/ + /in/ + /kuk/ = /moːɾɯŋkuk/
bear fur coat coat made out of bear's fur

But if we decided to name a tribe after the coat they wear...

/moːt/ + /in/ + /kuk/ + /iː/ = /møːɾiŋkyɣiː/
bear fur coat "clan of" Tribe of the Bear Fur Coat

Vocabulary

  • Animals: moot (bear), waw (wolf), hër (lion), pïs (insect, buzzer), ťip (bird), mäk (sheep), päk (goat), ňiih (horse)
  • Utilities: kuk (coat), wuuš (javelin)
  • Abstract concepts: ii (clan/tribe)